Hey there, Kallie here to remind you that Eons
has some cool stickers for sale over at DFTBA.com, link in the description. Thanks for watching and, on with the show. Would you recognize your earliest primate
ancestor if you met it face to face? What if it didn’t look like a monkey, or
an ape, or even a lemur? Meet Purgatorius, a kind of mammal called
a plesiadapiform that might’ve been one of your earliest ancestors. Around 65 million years ago, these little
shrew-like creatures were climbing around in the trees of western North America, munching
on insects and fruit. They’re known from bits of jaws and teeth
that look more like those of later, true primates than any other group, and also from bones
that show that their ankles were mobile — perfect for an arboreal lifestyle. But Purgatorius is also kind of mysterious,
because it didn’t have what we think of as the classic primate traits, like forward
facing eyes, or nails instead of claws. So how did we get from this thing — a mouse-sized
creature that looked more like a squirrel than a monkey — to you, a member of Homo
sapiens? To answer that question, it helps to understand
the primate family tree, the whole history of evolutionary relationships that ties together
the Order of Primates. Then, you can trace your way back, all the
way from Purgatorius up to your very own perch on the primate family tree. To reconstruct the evolutionary history of
any organism — whether that’s you or a tree frog or a chicken — scientists rely
on two things: traits and dates. Think for a second about your own family tree:
You look more like the people you’re closely related to than your more distant relatives. But you can still pick out some features that
you share with, say, your second cousins or great-grandparents. And this also holds true when you’re looking
at the primate family tree. Researchers start by finding synapomorphies,
traits shared by two or more groups that are inherited from a common ancestor. Groups that are more closely related have
more of these synapomorphies in common than more distantly groups do, and this can be
used to organize certain groups together. Thinking about evolution this way emphasizes
your unique features as a species, as well as your similarities with other primates. But of course, a lot of your evolutionary
history shows up only in what you can’t see. Specifically, your genome. In addition to revealing genetic similarities
between you and other primates, your genome can provide a sense of how far apart in time
you are from your ancestors, with the help of what’s known as the molecular clock. This is based on the idea that DNA accumulates
mutations at a fairly constant rate over time in different organisms, But the clock only works if you’re looking
at parts of the genome that aren’t under selective pressure, like non-coding DNA – parts
of the genome that don’t code for particular proteins. That’s because mutations can only happen
at a constant rate if they’re not being selected for or against, by nature or anything else. And scientists can then “set” the clock
for a certain group of organisms, with the help of well-dated fossils. So, say you take two groups of organisms,
and quantify the amount of genetic difference between them. Then you divide that amount by the age of
a relevant fossil that has a known, radiometric age. You can then use that rate to calculate the
timing of the split between those two groups. And the relative that existed just before
that split is known as their last common ancestor, or LCA. LCAs appear at each branching point on the
primate family tree. And all of the connections between the branches
show their evolutionary relationships. So we can use all of this information to create
a taxonomy – a method for classifying and naming organisms. Including us! Now, we’re members of Homo sapiens. Homo is our genus, and sapiens is our species. Genus and species are taxonomic ranks, probably
the ones you’re most familiar with. They fit within a nested hierarchy of taxonomic
ranks, with each higher rank being more inclusive than the one below it. And these ranks reflect evolutionary relationships. So, being part of the genus Homo puts you
in a pretty exclusive group. It includes only our immediate ancestors and
our very closest fossil relatives. The earliest fossil from our genus, a partial
mandible, or lower jaw, from Ledi-Geraru in Ethiopia, is dated to 2.8 to 2.75 million
years ago, in the Pliocene Epoch. We don’t have enough of this jaw to know
which species it belonged to, but it’s thought to belong to a member of our genus because
of its teeth. Now, the next rank up from genus isn’t one
that’s mentioned very often. It’s the level of tribe, and our tribe is
Hominini, the hominins. The hominins include us plus all of our extinct
relatives that lived since our Last Common Ancestor with chimps and bonobos. That ancestor lived between 4 and 8 million
years ago, in either the Pliocene or Miocene Epoch. The date varies based on what part of the
genome is analyzed and what fossils are used to calibrate the molecular clock. Traditionally, the key traits of hominins
are that they’re bipedal, and the size of the canine teeth are closer to the same size
in both males and females. Sounds obscure, I know, but in chimps and
our more distant ancestors, males always had noticeably larger canines. And there are three main contenders for the
earliest known hominin: Sahelanthropus tchadensis at around 7 million years old, Orrorin tugenensis
at about 6 million years old, and Ardipithecus kadabba between 5.8 and 5.2 million years
old. Around this point in our family tree, you’ll
note that our ancestors are still looking more like you than like Purgatorius. Now, above the rank of tribe, there’s family. And our family is the Hominidae, the hominids
or great apes. They include us and chimps and bonobos, but
also orangutans and gorillas. Hominids are usually large-bodied, with males
that tend to be larger than females. And we all lack what’s
known as ischial callosities. These are the specialized fatty pads that
gibbons, siamangs, and many Old World monkeys have on their butts. They’re basically built-in seat cushions. Within the hominids, the orangutan lineage
branched off between 12 and 15 million years ago. Some of their earliest members were part of
the genus Sivapithecus, whose fossils have been found throughout Asia. And around the same time, another tribe of
hominids, known as the Dryopithecines, were living in Europe. And this tribe may have given rise to the
African apes, including gorillas, chimps, and bonobos. Now, let’s talk more about apes. Because you are one. Taxonomically, you’re part of the Superfamily
known as Hominoidea. This superfamily includes two families: the “great apes” or Hominidae and the
“lesser apes” or Hylobatidae, which includes gibbons and siamangs. These two families probably split sometime
between 16 and 24 million years ago, during in the Miocene. And all living hominoids – including you – share
features that are related to having an upright posture and living in the trees. We have stiffer lower backs with fewer lumbar
vertebrae, as well as the ability to rotate our arms above our heads at the shoulder,
and we lack tails. Also we mature more slowly than other primates,
we live longer lives and have relatively larger brains. And, just to be thorough here, we’ve also
got a characteristic pattern of cusps on our lower molar teeth; this is the kind of thing
that primatologists look for! There are 5 of these cusps, and the lines
between form a Y shape. So we call them Y-5 molars. Check them out the next time you’re in front
of a mirror. Now, if we check in with Purgatorius, we can
at least point to a couple of things that it has in common with hominoids, like living
in trees. But it still looks nothing like an ape. But members of the next rank will probably
look familiar. That rank is Infraorder, and the one we belong
to is Simiiformes, which includes both monkeys and apes. Among the monkeys, you have your New World
monkeys and your Old World monkeys. Both have eye sockets that are completely
enclosed by bone. And they also have dry noses, meaning they
lack a rhinarium, the wet part of the snout that some animals, like dogs, have that gives
them increased smelling abilities. And since we share a more recent common ancestor
with Old World monkeys, our nostrils open downward, like theirs do. But in the New World monkeys, they open sideways. The hominoid lineage split from the one leading
to Old World monkeys between 24 and 38 million years ago, probably around 29 million years
ago, in the Oligocene. But the lineage leading to New World monkeys
branched off a bit earlier, sometime between 33 and 44 million years ago, in the Eocene. Now, one rank up from Infraorder is Suborder. And ours is Haplorhini. This includes us, the other apes, the monkeys,
and the tarsier, which is the only primate that exclusively eats other animals — generally
insects and small vertebrates. Haplorrhines, like you, have dry noses, broad,
flat incisors, and eye orbits that are at least partially enclosed with bone at the
back. Tarsiers and Simiiformes might have parted
ways as far back as 65 million years ago, in the early Paleocene, shortly after the
extinction of the non avian dinosaurs. The ancestor of all haplorrhines was probably
small, arboreal, and active during the day. And it might’ve eaten both insects and fruits. So, it may have been more like Purgatorius
than anything else we’ve encountered so far. And finally, we’ve made it to the level
of Order. And ours is Primates, which is all of the
haplorrhines plus the lemurs and lorises, which are considered strepsirrhines. All primates have forward-facing eyes, which
gives us binocular vision and good depth perception, important for life in the trees. And we also have eye orbits that are partially
or completely enclosed by bone. We also have opposable, grasping thumbs; fingernails
instead of claws; and relatively large brains and slower life histories than other mammals,
meaning we mature more slowly and live longer. Not all primates have all of these features,
but they’re the traits that define us as an order — ones that evolved in our early
ancestors and were passed on, contributing to our success. And this brings us, at long last, to Purgatorius,
the earliest known potential primate whose fossils date from around 65 million years
ago. But molecular clock studies suggest that the
origin of our order may be 10 million years before that, during the Cretaceous period. Plus, like I said at the very beginning, Purgatorius
is a plesiadapiform. And there’s still debate about whether plesiadapiforms
are primates, because they don’t have enclosed bony orbits, or nails, or even forward-facing
eyes. But some researchers support their primate
status on the basis of the anatomy of their teeth and ankles. The earliest uncontroversial primates — the
ones that have all the primate features, like the adapoids and omomyoids — show up about
55.8 million years ago, at the start of the Eocene. So that’s where you are on the tree of life! Your species is sapiens, in the genus Homo. You’re also a hominin and, beyond that,
a hominid, or great ape. You’re a member of the hominoids, one of
all the apes that has ever existed, and you’re a simiiform, placing you on the branch that
includes monkeys, too. You’re also a haplorrhine, like the tarsier,
on the opposite branch of the family tree from the lemurs and lorises. But they’re your distant cousins, too – because
they’re fellow members of the primate order. That’s your evolutionary heritage in a nutshell. Your immediate ancestors are upright walkers
and tool users. But your distant ancestors were small, tree-dwelling
creatures, like Purgatorius, that would go on to diversify into the incredible array
of lemurs, lorises, monkeys, and apes alive today. Thanks for joining me today. And BIG thanks to our Eontologists: Jake Hart,
Jon Ivy and STEVE! Now, scientists differ about a lot of things. But I think there’s something almost everyone
can agree on: Tacos! If you want to feel like every day is Taco
Tuesday, then check out a new foodie series from PBS Digital Studios, the Tacos of Texas. The link is in the description. Now, what do you want to learn about? Leave me a comment, and don’t forget to
go to youtube.com/eons and subscribe.

Your Place in the Primate Family Tree
Tagged on:                                                                                                                                                                                     

100 thoughts on “Your Place in the Primate Family Tree

  • October 16, 2018 at 9:14 pm
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    Hi everyone in the comment section! Just to echo what Kallie said at the beginning of the episode: our first-ever sticker is available now. Designed by the brilliant paleoartist Franz Anthony! Check it out: https://store.dftba.com/collections/eons/products/eons-sticker-decal

    Reply
  • November 16, 2018 at 6:55 pm
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    Why are we looking in the US for a human ancestor if humans originated in Africa…like where Lucy was found?

    Reply
  • November 17, 2018 at 2:27 am
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    For the family tree thing i am the only person in my family with curly hair, everyone else has straight hair except for my dead great great aunt so i look more like one of my distant relatives than my close relatives

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  • November 20, 2018 at 8:07 pm
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    The Squirrel We evolved from,is right outside today. Have a look.

    Reply
  • November 22, 2018 at 12:25 am
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    How ridiculous it is to see apes that belong to the same species,fight each other as if they came from different worlds for resources and selfish gains. They think they are different from all other creatures yet they have the same instinctive animal behaviors that all other species possess.

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  • November 22, 2018 at 10:16 pm
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    I have found the solid evidence of why the Christian version of human's creation is incorrect. This is beautiful.

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  • November 26, 2018 at 8:56 am
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    Maybe Purgatorius should be considered a stem-primate rather than exclusively a primate or non-primate.

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  • November 28, 2018 at 6:56 pm
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    I still like Hank, but Kallie is my favourite presenter.

    Reply
  • November 28, 2018 at 11:12 pm
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    Why only DNA type life?

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  • November 29, 2018 at 10:05 pm
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    I wonder to what degree we are wrong about this stuff.

    Reply
  • December 3, 2018 at 1:54 am
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    I'd love to learn more specifics about how genomic data is analyzed to create these family trees as well as where I could find public repositories of this data. The only public genomic data I could find was Google's BigQuery public datasets but they only have human and cannabis genomes.

    Reply
  • December 6, 2018 at 12:32 pm
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    Lets talk about apes… Because, you are one!

    OOF!

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  • December 6, 2018 at 11:11 pm
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    Who the hell is steve?

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  • December 11, 2018 at 8:38 pm
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    ITS SYNAPOMORPHIN TIME!!! PURGATORIUS! 🤛👊

    Reply
  • December 18, 2018 at 4:54 pm
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    I'm no longer sure that I am a "relevant fossil".

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  • December 24, 2018 at 1:12 am
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    so wait can anyone then tell me the class that we belong to? i was pretty sure its the Mammalia right? Cuz on the other hand a friend told me that Mammalia was the Phylum we are in, but (and do correct if wrong) i thought we were in the …..cnidarians Phylum AKA all known vertebrate animals, anyone? Am i right or was my friend right?

    See that would be cool one, to discuss the macro scale taxonomic rankings, just cuz if i AM right, then i'm pretty sure that tho there are around 16 phyla that are still around, with some 32 others that are all but wiped out and extinct, still find it funny that most people only identify with the different classes [Mammals, Reptiles, Fish, Birds ext.] yet that represents only one Phylum, sure its the most common, an maybe some people are familiar with….omg …wait…Cephalopod i think? the dominant invertebrate Phylum is it? But maybe(if PBS Eons is listening) such questions can be answered such as is it possible to have just one specie or genera in a whole Phylum? if so, closest example?? or how is it that something as simple as nematodes or flat worms get to have there own Phylum? Is it just cuz it doesn't have an epidermis?

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  • December 24, 2018 at 9:43 am
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    So you're saying I'm a monkey fish frog?

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  • December 25, 2018 at 3:40 pm
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    Purgatorius looking like a squirrel shouldn't surprise us too much. We're actually closer related to squirrels than, say, dogs. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires

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  • December 25, 2018 at 5:21 pm
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    I barely get along with my relatives. Born in the same decade as me. So not wanting my distant primates over for dinner.

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  • December 30, 2018 at 9:51 am
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    Seems kind of arbitrary to compare us to prehistoric rats when we all know that our actual earliest ancestors are every living creature's earliest ancestor. None of us would be here commenting on Youtube today if not for the unicellular organisms swimming through the primordial soup.

    Reply
  • January 4, 2019 at 11:10 am
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    Kally is the best narrator amazing voice, pace, pitch, love love love!!

    Reply
  • January 5, 2019 at 2:32 am
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    I wish that there were other species of our genus because I think that would be cool but at the same time we don't even treat members of our own species right so I kind of don't

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  • January 8, 2019 at 5:24 pm
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    Imma go visit my cousins…

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  • January 14, 2019 at 1:28 am
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    So basically our great^n mother was some sort of Tetrapod and its grand^n child was some sort of Synapsid and we all share the same lineage all the way down to some human, and my most distant living human cousin is probably some indigenous African tribe child, and everyone in 3000 years will have one single human female ancestor that is alive right now.

    Reply
  • January 16, 2019 at 1:02 am
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    I’m literally a Texan making tacos as the video hit the end lol

    Reply
  • January 26, 2019 at 1:57 am
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    A bit of a tangent but the clip of the girl climbing the mountain at 1:20… am I crazy or is that the SAME clip used in part of Within Temptation's 'Raise Your Banner' lyric video?? Is it from here?? Somewhere else??

    Reply
  • January 27, 2019 at 3:34 am
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    from what primates evolved?

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  • January 27, 2019 at 4:28 am
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    I really loved this video. It leaves you feeling humbled.

    Reply
  • January 27, 2019 at 8:01 am
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    Surprised not to hear sexual dimorphism. Overall, good quick physical anthropology lecture.

    Reply
  • January 27, 2019 at 2:54 pm
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    Why did everyone get there last name except Steve….poor Steve

    Reply
  • January 29, 2019 at 10:13 pm
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    I'm just a warehouse worker, but I always asked myself: Why are we humans, out of all primate species, the most adapted to aquatic environments?
    We lack the fur, we practice apnea like whales and dolphins, we have interdigital membranes and even our nostrils face a different direction from all of the other primates. Why does no one talks about these physiological traits? Could it be the adaptation to an aquatic environment that made us so different from every other species? How long did these transformations happened? So many questions and no one to answer them…

    Reply
  • February 5, 2019 at 2:54 am
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    I suppose something will branch off from us, we aren't a dead end.

    Reply
  • February 6, 2019 at 2:40 am
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    I'm in my first university level anthropology class and it is so interesting watching these videos after my classes! Very helpful with solidifying that information that I picked up at school, and shown in both an educational and entertaining way!

    Reply
  • February 8, 2019 at 5:22 am
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    Great episode- she is an impressive speaker

    Reply
  • February 10, 2019 at 11:34 am
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    #ProudToBeAPrimate

    Reply
  • February 15, 2019 at 9:43 am
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    I'll never not find it funny that it's called Purgatorius lmao

    Reply
  • February 16, 2019 at 2:11 am
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    Very interesting ☺

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  • March 2, 2019 at 6:34 pm
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    This was a very humbling watch.
    Thank you.

    Reply
  • March 11, 2019 at 5:35 pm
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    I love fiction.

    Reply
  • March 13, 2019 at 3:21 pm
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    That primate family tree looks like the lockpick skilltree from Skyrim

    Reply
  • March 15, 2019 at 10:36 pm
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    Can you make an epsisode when and how we lost the ability to synthesize Vitamin C?

    Reply
  • March 27, 2019 at 5:00 am
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    Amazing! thank you so much"!! I love PBS & Evolution ♥

    But what about Catarrhini? were are they placed?

    Hope to see more on the first life forms as stromatolites, fungi.
    I love you all.

    Reply
  • March 27, 2019 at 5:08 am
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    I don't know if it's important to many people, but we owe our ancestors every piece of life & joy we can obtain today, because they fighted hard to survive in extreme conditions and adversities.
    I'm proud of being a part of their MIllion Years Heritage…the ancients that faced terrible times, they didn't had our intellectual speed and brain power to understand what was happening….

    Even that, they DID MAKE IT.

    We are here thanks to Them.

    Reply
  • March 27, 2019 at 10:00 am
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    We spent some time in purgatory, as a rat called purgatorous……

    Reply
  • March 28, 2019 at 3:37 pm
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    I'd agree about tacos… if I had any idea what they were. Are they like kebabs?

    Reply
  • March 30, 2019 at 6:16 pm
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    I'd like to see a video like this about dogs

    Reply
  • April 6, 2019 at 2:54 am
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    Grandpa

    Reply
  • April 8, 2019 at 9:01 pm
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    I feel offended because you assumed my species. I identify as a rusty table leg

    Reply
  • April 10, 2019 at 1:37 am
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    wait…. so homo sexuals are a different species?

    Reply
  • April 10, 2019 at 6:10 am
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    This blew my mind out.

    Reply
  • April 13, 2019 at 4:44 pm
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    What a trip
    Thanks

    Reply
  • April 16, 2019 at 3:59 am
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    If you compare all horses, donkeys, and zebras, it's obvious they're related. If you look at all fowls, they share indisputable characteristics that prove their commonality. And dogs, foxes, wolves, etc., are all clearly relatives. Then you have apes—and humans?!?! Are you kidding me? Apart from some superficial features, we look nothing like apes!

    Reply
  • April 20, 2019 at 3:13 am
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    Wow.

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  • April 23, 2019 at 1:07 am
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    This brought me to ask, what was before Purgatorius?

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  • May 1, 2019 at 11:15 pm
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    Did you just assume my species?

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  • May 2, 2019 at 3:50 pm
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    How long would it take for Homo Sapiens to be isolated before they become seperate species themselves, like the pigmy mammoth?

    Reply
  • May 2, 2019 at 11:42 pm
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    What is the benefit of nails over claws?

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  • May 5, 2019 at 4:21 am
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    She gotta stop saying "yours" or "you" I feel like she pointing me out lmao like you also in the family tree!

    Reply
  • May 6, 2019 at 7:48 pm
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    How come one diagram says tribe and the other family?

    Reply
  • May 8, 2019 at 12:45 am
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    I'm confused you make it sound like north America was rich with life at that point I thought it would still be more barren due to the mass extinction that wiped out the dinosaurs

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  • May 11, 2019 at 10:12 am
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    tbh imo this was more tediously done than it could've been, I wasn't here for a taxonomy lesson which this felt like more than an explanation of human ancestors and relatives, their similarities/differences, which was what the title implied

    Reply
  • May 15, 2019 at 4:03 am
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    I’d like to see one about how dinosaur fossil are were pieced back together to create an image said dinosaur

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  • May 19, 2019 at 1:13 pm
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    Homo sapiens…"man the thinker"!

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  • May 26, 2019 at 6:20 am
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    But how can you go farther back than 6,000 years BC?

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  • June 2, 2019 at 8:40 pm
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    Your entire show is ludicrous. I'm religious. So we were hatched out of an egg by a chicken-cow-hybrid goddess with bad breath. How can one not know that?

    Reply
  • June 14, 2019 at 1:33 am
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    Female Lemurs play mischivios tricks in the love games resembling women.And is an indication on that line!

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  • June 15, 2019 at 4:28 pm
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    If we go further back everythin came out of water..i wonder how humans will evolve even further unles we kill r self off from wat its lookn Like lol

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  • June 17, 2019 at 9:12 pm
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    Remember she said at the beginning of the video that the purgatorias might be our earliest ancestors

    Reply
  • June 18, 2019 at 12:21 am
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    6:00
    'They're basically built in seat cushions!'
    The delivery of that line is amazing 😀

    Next time I want to sit down somewhere I'm going to confuse someone by saying 'Oh damn, I wish I still had my Ischial Callosities' 😛

    Reply
  • June 26, 2019 at 12:54 am
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    this explains why i am not impress with rock climbers and tree house owners. we have definitely evolved

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  • June 27, 2019 at 7:07 pm
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    Bring back the seat cushions 2020

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  • July 7, 2019 at 5:59 am
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    Oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooof

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  • July 9, 2019 at 10:30 pm
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    I'm confused.

    Purgatorius was found in North America and it is said to be a human ancestor, and our more recent ancestors appeared in Africa. But I see a map of the world from that time and North America and any means for reaching Africa are just too separated. There were no ships or airplanes back then and I don't think purgatorius could swim such long distances.

    If purgatorius was from North America and then his descendants that would lead to us were from Africa, how did they reach Africa in the first place? Is purgatorius really our ancestor or it could be another animal we don't know yet?

    Reply
  • July 11, 2019 at 8:41 am
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    Hang on dont we need to find the missing link before we can say categorically were we fit? As we have seen very recently with the discovery of 210k year old human remains in Greece wich challenges or out of Africa perception or certainly or migration date. That to assume anything in anthropology is to no nothing.

    Reply
  • July 13, 2019 at 12:36 pm
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    My evolution stretches back to Alan, a bitter old drunk who swore at the television. He never streamed fantastic content like this; thus avoiding the garbage on free to air tv.

    Reply
  • July 16, 2019 at 4:09 pm
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    So if we don't have those pads as Hominidaes does that mean that our buttocks are convergent evolution?

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  • July 17, 2019 at 6:23 pm
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    Great video!!!

    Reply
  • July 19, 2019 at 1:00 pm
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    I want to live up trees

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  • July 19, 2019 at 6:29 pm
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    Why no mention of Rhesus positive or negative blood type and what this means.

    Reply
  • July 20, 2019 at 12:56 am
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    My place in the Primate Family tree? I thought Primate was an Order.

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  • July 21, 2019 at 11:35 am
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    HOW STUPID
    ❌❌❌❌❌

    Reply
  • July 25, 2019 at 3:32 pm
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    When your dog is also watching so he now thinks he's human.

    Reply
  • July 27, 2019 at 10:46 pm
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    4:14sec…. cutest family shot ever

    Reply
  • July 28, 2019 at 1:49 pm
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    She has a lisp right ?

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 11:00 pm
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    Thanks for remembering which videos I've watched on the playlist. Seriously, I watch tons of playlists and remembering where I'm at it's difficult.

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 8:26 am
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    180 mormons disliked this video.

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 8:10 pm
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    That lemur is me watching this video.

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  • August 7, 2019 at 6:37 am
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    Our ancient shrew like ancestors are so insanely cute.

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  • August 15, 2019 at 11:34 pm
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    All praise Steve!

    Reply
  • August 19, 2019 at 4:42 am
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    I like how she says your earliest ancestor. Is she a reptilian?

    Reply
  • August 22, 2019 at 9:19 am
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    Brilliantly done

    Reply
  • August 22, 2019 at 5:21 pm
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    Epoch = Epic according to this girl

    Reply
  • August 25, 2019 at 6:35 am
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    Do we have a good idea of what the last common ancestor of homo sapiens and chimps looked like?

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  • August 25, 2019 at 6:38 am
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    I am related to owls. I say this because it is technically true and I like owls.

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  • August 27, 2019 at 7:41 pm
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    There's no transition species, humans just appear on the evolutionary time-line.

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  • August 29, 2019 at 10:40 am
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    Sorry for being flippant.. Amazing video.. Incredibly informative!! Thank you so much PBS Eons!

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  • August 31, 2019 at 8:43 am
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    I wish Kallies were my biology teacher

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  • September 1, 2019 at 4:53 pm
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    Do not believe this! Still sciencist is pushing this. Go back to studying.

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  • September 3, 2019 at 5:01 pm
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    Nobody says anything about it, but we're actually pretty close to the bottom.

    Reply
  • September 6, 2019 at 11:05 pm
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    This is just great.

    Reply

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