Black holes are the most powerful things in the universe, strong enough to rip whole stars into atom sized pieces Well, this is scary enough. They have an even more powerful and dark property: they might delete the universe itself. Black holes in a nutshell A black hole appears when an extraordinary amount of matter is concentrated in a tiny space. At their center, gravity is almost infinitely strong and whatever gets too close is ripped into its elementary particles. Not even light can escape black holes, and so we perceive them as spheres of blackness. If you were to fall into a black hole, nothing bad would happen until well after you crossed its outer border: the event horizon. You can imagine this as swimming in a river that ends in an enormous waterfall. As you float along, imperceptibly, the stream gets faster and faster, even if you can’t see the waterfall yet. You could swim to safety, until without even noticing it, you cross the point of no return. No matter how fast you try to swim now, the stream will pull you towards certain death. Nothing can escape a black hole waterfall once it gets too close. This border completely separates black holes from the rest of the universe: we can’t access them unless we’re willing to never return. So there’s no way of telling what’s really going on inside black holes, but we have a few ideas about what’s going on right at their very edges. Black holes radiate their mass away, like a hot pot on a stove losing its water as steam. This is called Hawking radiation. Black holes constantly lose an extremely tiny amount of their mass, a process that’s unbelievably slow. It will take a black hole with a mass of our sun 10,000 billion billion billion billion billion billion years to lose 0.0000001% of its mass. This is happening constantly and unstoppably, and as it goes on it speeds up more and more. In the far far future when the last star in the universe has been dead for trillions of years, black holes will become tinier and tinier until they evaporate and disappear, leaving behind just a bit of radiation. But this is a problem, because in the process of disappearing black holes might delete something fundamental: information. 2 – What is information? Information is nothing tangible. It’s typically understood as a property of the arrangement of particles. What does this mean? Imagine a bunch of carbon atoms. Arrange them in a certain way and you get coal. Arrange them in a different way, and you get a diamond. The atoms are the same, what changes is the information. If we make this more complex and add in a few more atoms, we get a banana. Change the arrangement of the atoms, and we get a squirrel. The basic building blocks of everything in the universe are the same, and don’t care if they’re part of a bird or a rock or a cup of coffee. Without information everything in the universe would be the same. According to the theory of quantum mechanics information is indestructible. It might change shape, but it can never be lost: for example if you burn a piece of paper, you get ash. That ash will never become paper again. But, if you were able to carefully collect every single carbon atom in the ash, and measured the exact properties of the smoke and heat radiating from the fire, you could, in theory reconstruct the paper. The information of the paper is still in the universe. It’s not lost, it’s just hard to read. If you could somehow measure every single atom and particle and wave of radiation in the universe, you could see and track every bit of information there is. Hypothetically, you could see the entire history of the universe right back to the Big Bang. And here black holes trip us up. Information tells us how things are different from each other and what used to be what. Black holes do the opposite: they take different things and make them the same. They destroy information. This creates the information paradox, and this is a serious problem. The information paradox It’s fundamental for all our laws of physics that information can never be lost. Existing, not existing. Without information, everything is relative. When it comes to our understanding of reality, we need absolutes. How could we solve this paradox? There are a few possibilities. 1) Information is lost. Irretrievably and forever. This means we have to nix all our laws of physics, throwing out a lot of stuff that’s worked very well so far and to start from scratch What those new laws of physics would look like, or what that means for us, nobody knows. This is a little frightening, but also kind of exciting. 2) Information is hidden. Maybe a little part of the black hole splits off and forms a baby universe. The information would be transferred into this new weird place, where we could never observe or interact with it, but technically it would not be lost. It’s like having a broken hard drive with all your family photos, that you could never access. Sure, it’s nice that they’ve not been deleted, but also not very helpful. Or maybe black holes don’t disappear completely after the end of their life cycles, but a little piece is left, an information diamond. like a clown car filled with an infinite amount of information clowns. But there’s a third option: Information is safe after all, not lost or hidden. Perhaps we’ve just been looking at this whole thing the wrong way. We know that black holes trap information and might delete it later, but we never thought about what they do with it in the meantime. Where do black holes store their information? Cosmic housekeeping Let’s create a black hole with dirty laundry. First, we fill up a room with laundry baskets: the more laundry you want to store, the more baskets you put in the room. But at some point every single basket is full, and the room is completely stacked, not a single extra sock fits in. The room is at maximum capacity. But if we still squeeze the sock in with a lot of energy and violence, the room collapses in on itself and forms a black hole. But the capacity of the room itself has not changed, fitting in more stuff or information is still impossible. So what happens if we throw more laundry into it? The room itself gets a little bit bigger to make space for the new information. It turns out a black hole grows its surface by a tiny pixel for each bit of information we throw into it. In a nutshell, more information means more surface area. The information gets painted on the surface, similar to what happens when we throw a stone into a pond. After the stone sinks to the bottom we can’t see it anymore, but we can tell that something went in from the ripples on the surface of the pond. Even the smallest black hole can store more information on its surface than all the data ever produced in human history. They do this by storing information in a type of pixel that is unbelievably tiny. Black holes are the ultimate hard drive. This is a bit like taking a paper back, and turning it into an e-book, two things that look completely different. But their content is the same — it’s just encoded and memorized in another way. Black holes swallowing stars and planets is a bit like transferring a whole library onto an e-reader. This solution is called the holographic principle, but if it’s correct then everything we thought we knew about the universe is wrong. The universe is a hologram If information is actually stored on the boundary of a black hole, the Hawking radiation has a chance of learning about the information encoded there, and can carry it away. So, information is not lost when black holes fade away, and we do not need to redo physics: the information paradox is resolved. But we still have to change our understanding of reality in a fundamental way. If everything that falls into the black hole is stored on its event horizon, that basically means that three-dimensional stuff is encoded on a flat surface. We have a name for this: a hologram. A hologram is like a 3D photo, a flat piece of plastic that encodes a three-dimensional image. A black hole is like a hologram, because everything inside it is encoded on its event horizon. A person inside a black hole will experience their usual three-dimensional life. but for us on the outside they are flattened images on the surface of the black hole. The consequence of this is counterintuitive, but stay with us for a moment. Black holes are very extreme objects, but they’re still bound to the same rules as everything else. So if this crazy duality between 2D and 3D works for black holes, then it might work for the whole universe, and you in it. Since a person inside a black hole would not realize that they’re encoded on a flat surface, we might share the same fate: you really might be stretched over a flat screen at the end of the universe. The science behind this is complicated and really weird, with toy universes to play with, string theory and a lot of maths. We’ll talk about this more in another video. Regardless of what the true nature of the universe really is, we just know that it’s strange and complicated, and we have to do a lot more physics to understand it. But black holes might be key to understanding the nature of reality itself. This video was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, and realized with the scientific advice of Alessandro Sfondrini.

Why Black Holes Could Delete The Universe – The Information Paradox
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100 thoughts on “Why Black Holes Could Delete The Universe – The Information Paradox

  • February 8, 2019 at 2:00 pm
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    There's brand new stuff in the Kurzgesagt Merch Shop. Check it out here: shop.kurzgesagt.org

    Reply
  • August 18, 2019 at 2:50 pm
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    Who is doing some workout while listening to this Video ?

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  • August 18, 2019 at 6:05 pm
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    8:03
    Life is an illusion, the universe is a hologramm buy gold bye.
    -Bill Cipher

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  • August 18, 2019 at 7:43 pm
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    the crazy part is. the earth is flat and its also round. those flat earth guys live in a different dimension that coexist with us. what they see is real – just like what we see is real round earth. this is why we should ship them off to black hole so they go back to their normal dimension xD

    Reply
  • August 18, 2019 at 10:22 pm
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    6:34 : "Remember me as the man who created a black hole from a sock."

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  • August 19, 2019 at 2:06 am
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    I really love this animations. If the schools system used this, more students would be interested in science

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  • August 19, 2019 at 3:46 am
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    All I've learned is that 2d waifus might actually exist

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  • August 19, 2019 at 3:51 am
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    What if all that information being stored is the process of creating a singularity?

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  • August 19, 2019 at 6:01 am
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    Could someone answer this for me, how will all our stars die one day? Aren’t there constantly new ones being made?

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  • August 19, 2019 at 7:15 am
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    Чушь собачья этот ваш закон о том что информация не может исчезнуть
    Есть человек с очень важной информацией, знающий только он, и он умирает, как вы из умершего мозга доставать информацию?

    Reply
  • August 19, 2019 at 7:31 am
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    Patrick

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  • August 19, 2019 at 10:46 am
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    Believe me I have a power that can tear an atom

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  • August 19, 2019 at 3:24 pm
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    Stop. Talking. This is so weird.

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  • August 19, 2019 at 5:17 pm
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    Did anyone notice patric at 1:05

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  • August 19, 2019 at 6:28 pm
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    I see. so a paper shredder, fire, or acid is not enough. I need a black hole to destroy sensitive documents.

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  • August 19, 2019 at 7:13 pm
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    Did I hear jolly 3s foxy jump scare malfunction

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  • August 19, 2019 at 8:12 pm
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    with which software animates your videos please?

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  • August 19, 2019 at 10:53 pm
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    I wonder how flat earthers explain black holes 🤔

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  • August 19, 2019 at 11:01 pm
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    1:05 hello patrick star

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  • August 20, 2019 at 1:13 am
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    Now what if everything in the observable universe is all thrown into one black hole ? What would happen

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  • August 20, 2019 at 1:40 am
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    What do you think with a white hole???

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  • August 20, 2019 at 2:29 pm
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    Press alt+f4 to pay respect.

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  • August 20, 2019 at 4:31 pm
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    I don't understand why so much analysis be done .

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  • August 20, 2019 at 4:47 pm
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    Poor bird 4:24

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  • August 20, 2019 at 6:09 pm
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    Black holez:we kil al univers
    Futur veri hot stars: i weel melt u
    Black holez: nuuuu

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  • August 20, 2019 at 7:39 pm
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    Damn. Black holes episode 5 coming out? Lol.

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  • August 21, 2019 at 4:01 am
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    Tell me why the bird in 4:24 is literally me

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  • August 21, 2019 at 8:13 am
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    0:06 some infinity war thing

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  • August 21, 2019 at 7:14 pm
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    Am I the only one who is still freaked out even though all these jokes are funny?

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  • August 22, 2019 at 6:55 am
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    Awesome, you are one of tje best teachers when it comes to this stuff

    Reply
  • August 22, 2019 at 11:35 am
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    There's only one thing I can think of right now AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAHHHHHHHHHH!

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  • August 22, 2019 at 1:05 pm
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    Imagine 2200 This black hole ran out of space let's get a new one

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  • August 22, 2019 at 1:12 pm
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    Roses are red
    Violets are blue
    Banana=squirrel
    And so do you

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  • August 23, 2019 at 1:06 am
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    plot twist im actually stuck in a virtual world and you all are fake.

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  • August 23, 2019 at 1:50 am
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    Complete bunk. Humans are irrational and just make up stuff. What a let down.

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  • August 23, 2019 at 4:32 am
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    5.9k flat earthers spotted

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  • August 23, 2019 at 7:10 am
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    Black holes: *exists*
    Monika: I’m about to end this mans whole career

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  • August 23, 2019 at 12:01 pm
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    Black Hole: In a nutshell, i gain and lose information

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  • August 23, 2019 at 12:09 pm
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    Black hole sun won't you come, was away the rain.

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  • August 23, 2019 at 5:45 pm
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    WoW

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  • August 23, 2019 at 8:19 pm
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    So can I find my waifu in a black hole?

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  • August 23, 2019 at 11:14 pm
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    Wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle waffle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle wiggle

    Spot the difference

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  • August 24, 2019 at 12:43 am
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    I just noticed that Black Holes are black, therefore reflecting the color black. Does that mean that darkness can escape a black hole?

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  • August 24, 2019 at 3:48 pm
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    bro I love your videos

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  • August 24, 2019 at 4:59 pm
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    The idea brought up at the end is what I've been thinking black holes were like for a little now only I hadn't thought about how they're actually stored/portrayed as holographic objects that's extremely interesting.

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  • August 24, 2019 at 8:03 pm
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    What if black holes are teleportes to different Universes?

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  • August 24, 2019 at 9:47 pm
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    thx now I can my a black hole with this tutorial 6:34

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  • August 25, 2019 at 12:29 am
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    Aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ahora tengo una crisis existencial

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  • August 25, 2019 at 10:45 am
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    So that means Star Trek was right about everything… :0

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  • August 25, 2019 at 11:24 am
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    Hi +Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell

    You begin by saying that a black hole loses its mass and shrinks 2:01–2:22,

    But after you say it grows 6:57.

    So which one is more dominant? Or, how can both be happening?

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  • August 25, 2019 at 11:51 am
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    My mind blew up

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  • August 25, 2019 at 9:36 pm
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    what runs but never walks what has a bed but never sleeps reply if you know (hint it is not alive)

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  • August 25, 2019 at 9:40 pm
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    oh and bytheway it is a body

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  • August 26, 2019 at 4:16 am
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    Information is stored in the balls

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  • August 26, 2019 at 4:49 am
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    If you think about it our universe is like a computer black holes are our way of deleting things out of the storage unit. Deleting items and putting them in places to free up space for new storage to be put in that deleted Space.

    Not good explanation but as long as you get it.

    Reply
  • August 26, 2019 at 7:33 am
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    Maybe the universe isn’t expanding as such its falling into a black hole 🕳 the biggest black hole in the universe 🤔🤔🤔

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  • August 26, 2019 at 1:09 pm
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    One of the best explanations thanks man that was a quick and a good video probably waiting for more videos based on black holes

    Reply
  • August 26, 2019 at 6:28 pm
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    What if we all are into a black hole?

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  • August 26, 2019 at 7:15 pm
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    Black holes could delete the universe?? Quick someone make a few copies, Pronto.

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  • August 27, 2019 at 3:19 am
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    1:04 notice spongebob's nude friend on a rock

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  • August 27, 2019 at 11:35 am
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    What if the Big Bang was actually a massive star collapsing and forming a black hole and we're inside of it? Maybe we're all just holograms in 2D encodeded into 3D then?

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  • August 27, 2019 at 4:59 pm
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    Quantum fracture explains it better

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  • August 27, 2019 at 6:32 pm
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    Strongest thing in the universe? I doubt a black hole could deadlift 500kg.

    Reply
  • August 28, 2019 at 12:03 am
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    My brain…………………………………………. it hurts

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  • August 28, 2019 at 3:03 am
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    1:02
    Patrick is warning you and you still won't listen

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  • August 28, 2019 at 6:24 am
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    So that means…

    Thanos = Black hole
    So Thanos is black

    Reply
  • August 28, 2019 at 3:54 pm
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    6:13 – The best description of black hole I've ever heard

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  • August 28, 2019 at 8:56 pm
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    Black Holes: I'm Inevitable

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  • August 28, 2019 at 11:17 pm
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    Im confused on why information cannot be just broken down, into many many many similar pieces.

    Can anyone explain

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  • August 29, 2019 at 6:24 am
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    会不会黑洞是通往其他多元宇宙的出入口呢🤔

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  • August 29, 2019 at 10:21 am
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    What if where inside black holes and the black holes we see are just doors and the things that made us is on the other side on the black holes

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  • August 29, 2019 at 7:08 pm
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    if i ever smoke weed, im going to watch these videos

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  • August 29, 2019 at 8:58 pm
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    If stuff goes inside the BH and their information remains imprinted on the surface, doesn't that imply that information is being cloned? Quantum no clone theorem says against it.

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  • August 30, 2019 at 2:30 am
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    When Thanos tries to snap the universe out of existence

    Black Hole swallows the Infiniti stones

    ‘Let me do it’

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  • August 30, 2019 at 3:35 am
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    Information fart just remove the I n o r m t i o n

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  • August 30, 2019 at 12:59 pm
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    interstellar

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  • August 30, 2019 at 3:17 pm
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    1:06 oof

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  • August 30, 2019 at 5:44 pm
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    gravity inside blackhpoles are not infinite if they are infinite they will eat whole universe distance should not will be a matter for them but they can attract other bodies at some limit distance !!!

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  • August 31, 2019 at 3:53 am
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    2:31 So Your Telling Me That Most Of Infinity Is Five Minutes?

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  • August 31, 2019 at 12:34 pm
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    You properly can't send a probe into the black hole and get the signals or it back to us, because if light can escape, neither can the signal or any electromagnetic waves… I assume. But gamma waves could leave it, not sure about the electromagnetic waves responsible for sending the video signals…

    Reply
  • September 1, 2019 at 2:33 am
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    Thats a cute black hole!

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  • September 1, 2019 at 4:36 am
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    Hold up ima use my dirty laundry to destroy the universe as we know it wouldn't that be so fucking cool?

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  • September 1, 2019 at 6:31 am
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    5:58
    ""thought like trapping information, might delete it later"

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  • September 1, 2019 at 1:41 pm
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    so I might be living in a black hole that might be within another black hole?

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  • September 1, 2019 at 3:20 pm
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    Great Video!

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  • September 1, 2019 at 5:22 pm
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    Eating chicken is the same thing as eating

    The sun

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  • September 1, 2019 at 7:38 pm
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    Banana = squirrel
    Girls r we together?

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  • September 1, 2019 at 8:01 pm
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    🅱️ig 🅱️rain

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  • September 1, 2019 at 8:35 pm
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    Actually quantum do that too if it contain real randomness

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  • September 1, 2019 at 9:11 pm
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    Apart from the last black holes, I heard there’s a cool restaurant at the end of the universe

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  • September 1, 2019 at 10:03 pm
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    Alguien miró a Patricio en el río? 😂😂😂

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  • September 1, 2019 at 10:36 pm
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    The thumbnail for this is amazing.

    Reply
  • September 2, 2019 at 12:44 am
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    1:04 Hi Patrick !

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  • September 2, 2019 at 2:10 am
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    black holes do swallow big ones.

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  • September 2, 2019 at 3:19 am
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    You forgot, that its possible to read a Broken harddrive, with a lot of time afford

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  • September 2, 2019 at 3:30 am
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    mfw the earth might actually be flat.

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  • September 2, 2019 at 4:27 am
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    Please do cover the Holographic Principle some time in the future!

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  • September 2, 2019 at 6:26 am
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    Black holes? I though I searched black hoes!

    Reply
  • September 2, 2019 at 8:37 am
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    8:35 SO MY WAIFU IS REAL?

    Reply

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