Thank you to 23andme for supporting PBS Digital Studios You may have heard the usual pop sci description of string theory. There are these tiny vibrating strings and That’s where all the forces particles including gravity in the entire universe come from This raises more questions than it answers Like why strings? What are they made of? And what’s all this nonsense of extra dimensions? In physics we like to reduce our description of the mechanics of reality down to the simplest possible form We expect the most fundamental machinery to have the fewest possible moving parts or free parameters This is why the standard model of particle physics is considered incomplete. Its equations predict many things with stunning accuracy But they first require us to tune many mathematical knobs and dials we need to use physical measurement to fix 19 free parameters like the masses of particles and Then there’s gravity which doesn’t fit into the standard model at all so surely there exists a deeper set of cogs and wheels A theory that brings all observable phenomena into the same mechanical framework That would be a theory of everything and this is the great hope of string theory. In the following episodes We’re going to explore the gory details of string theory, but today it’s string theory 101 Where did this crazy idea come from? I mean why tiny vibrating strings? Versus literally any other tiny vibrating anything? What exactly are the strings of string theory first? Let’s do a quick primer on the origins of string theory. The idea started in the 60s with efforts to understand the behavior of hadrons collections of quarks bound by the gluons of the strong nuclear force That includes protons and neutrons as well as mesons, which are a combination of a quark and an antiquark Peculiarities in the interactions between pairs of mesons as well as an odd relationship between their angular momenta and masses Suggested that the quarks in mesons are connected by, you guessed it, strings In this case, the strings are stretched out tubes of strong nuclear force Vibrating elastic bands made of gluons. A lot of work went into figuring out a quantum theory for the the strong interaction based on the physics of strings The theory had some success but kind of got stuck and was ultimately replaced by quantum chromodynamics One of the reasons this strong force version of string theory got stuck is that it predicted the existence of unexpected and unwanted vibrational modes in the gluon field of these strings. What’s a vibrational mode in a quantum field? It’s a particle. And one of those modes appeared to be a massless spin-2 particle But the only hypothetical massless spin-2 particle is the graviton, the conjectured quantum particle of the gravitational field If the gravitational field is made of quantum particles Which it might be we really don’t know. But if it is, then the quanta of gravity should have an uncanny resemblance to the type of particle produced by this little investigation into hadronic strings except that there’s no way anything like the graviton should appear in that sort of string. This realization came in the early 70s A bold new proposal emerged forget mesons What if the math of this theory could be used in a theory of quantum gravity? in fact, what if all force carrying particles result from oscillations in tiny strings? All we needed was to make the strings a bit smaller. Like 20 orders of magnitude smaller Shrinking from the size of a proton to the Planck scale Roughly the scale of the difference between the Milky Way galaxy and your living room Oh, and we needed to add 22 dimensions to the familiar 4. No biggie This was so-called bosonic string theory If it worked it would have been a candidate for a grand unified theory combining all known forces But why stop there? If wiggly strings can explain force carrying bosons, Why not also the fermions that comprise matter? Through the 70s and 80s, several proposals Introduced the idea of supersymmetry to bring the fermions and bosons into the same theoretical framework The resulting super string theory sought to become an all-encompassing mechanism to explain the underlying workings of our entire reality. A theory of everything. As an added bonus this ambition also shaved off a bunch of dimensions Only ten were needed once fermions were added. Then in 1995 Ed Witten brought the many forms of super string theory together into the single framework of M theory All for the low price of adding only one more spatial dimension for an eleven dimensional theory Okay enough for the history lesson. Let’s talk strings. So wiggly strings could explain the whole universe That’s a hell of a claim. To understand quantum strings, first we need to look at regular strings they’re cooler than you think. The key is that strings can carry waves and If the string has ends or is tied in a loop then a wave will end up overlapping with itself In that case you get a standing wave Roughly speaking when these travelling waves overlap each other they can either stack up or cancel out constructive or destructive interference Constructive interference only happens if the wavelength of the wave fits a neat number of times along the length of the string Then the phases of the overlapping wave match in the right way and that wavelength / frequency of the wave is enhanced All other frequencies tend to die out The result is that for a given string only certain frequencies Corresponding to certain energies are possible. These resonant frequencies depend on the length of the string Also, it’s tension which defines wave velocity and so relates frequency to wave length For example, this leads to the specific frequencies of vibration on a guitar string But this sort of behavior, where only specific discrete energy modes are allowed sounds very quantum like String theorists weren’t the first to notice this Niels Bohr came up with the first quantum model for electron orbits by thinking of them as ring like standing waves around the hydrogen atom but Quantum strings are much more ambitious than boring electron orbits The hope is that tweaked just right, those discrete vibrational modes can be made to match the properties of known particles Particle mass just comes from the length of the string and it’s tension tension is after all just energy per unit length string length defines mass But also defines which complex vibrational modes are possible and those modes in turn define particle properties like electric charge and spin So this is the great promise of string theory. By defining a single parameter the string tension Or equivalently string length scale all of the possible particles should be automatically defined Compare that one parameter to the 19 free parameters of the standard model It sure sounds closer to a fundamental theory. Okay recap, we have these Planck scale One-dimensional structures that can be in loops or extended they have vibrational modes that define particle properties By the way, those vibrations the standing waves You’re not some abstract internal wave the strings are real physical strands and the waves are wiggles in actual space But physical strands of what? common answers include pure mass energy fundamental irreducible existence Topological irregularities in the fabric of reality or the most common answer. It’s a meaningless question. They are fundamental so not made of anything or in other words a material known as shut-up-and-calculate-onium Most string theorists are more interested in what strings do not what they’re made of So, what do they do? Well vibrate obviously they can hold energy They can stretch they can also merge and split apart These last properties are important because it gives a mechanism for the particles of string theory to interact and to decay into other particles This picture of strings coming together joining and splitting apart is a huge strength of the theory It solves one of the main problems with quantizing gravity Maybe you remember from our episode on quantum gravity if you try to describe gravitational interactions on the smaller scales, the energies required to interact on that scale produce black holes There’s no way to even think about the shape of the gravitational field on the Planck scale That doesn’t produce a hopeless conflict string theory fixes this because the graviton is a loop not a point particle its interactions are Smeared around that string handily avoiding the explosion of mathematical infinities You get below the Planck length All this stuff sounds great and by the way doesn’t work for any other geometrical structure other than a 1d string So vibrating guitar strings, yes. Drum skins, no. Unfortunately, it’s not going to be this easy Yeah, the strings themselves are 1d but to even start to produce the properties of known particles They need to vibrate in more than just the three dimensions of space In fact, the theory only works in precisely nine spatial dimensions plus one for time Plus one for M theory, which we’ll come back to in short without exactly this number of dimensions You don’t get gravitons or any other massless particle. We’ll look into why in future episodes But this is awkward to say the least. It’s a theory that works in a universe That is clearly not our own with its measly three dimensions of space. But this sort of thing doesn’t deter string theorists There’s a way to add extra spatial dimensions that is still consistent with our perceived 3d universe to get our heads around this Imagine we lived in a 2d flatland universe. We only perceive the giant x and y directions But what if flatland isn’t truly flat? What if the z-direction? Has a tiny tiny width This is a pac-man dimension. Travel the tiny width of this dimension and you’ll find yourself back where you started Very tiny objects like quantum strings could explore that extra dimension and importantly oscillate in it But we giant lumbering Flatlanders would have no clue it existed Okay now scale this up three large dimensions of space and six tiny pac-man dimensions That only strings experience. Voila string theory is saved Modern m-theory proposes an additional large spatial dimension our universe of 3d space and 1d time is like flatland on this 5d object called a 5-brane m-theory unites different string theories because it demonstrates some philosophically fascinating dualities between different ways of thinking about the dimensions Ultimately, it also leads to the ultimate duality. That is the holographic principle Patience, grasshoppers. We will get there. The exact behavior of strings depend on the shape of their compact dimensions In fact the single free parameter in string theory becomes the configuration of the extra dimensions Find the right location in this string landscape and you perfectly describe the universe the only issue is that there are an estimated 10 to the power of 500 possible choices and almost no way to figure out which one is ours Right now string theory appears to be at an impasse. It has produced no confirmed predictions Some would say it’s made no testable predictions Tuning that string landscape to match our universe is daunting and perhaps impossible Yet despite this impasse its promise and its elegance has convinced many that it must be right or at least the right path In coming episodes will look deeper into both the successes, the failures, and the profound weirdnesses of string theory then you can decide for yourself whether you accept the fundamental stringy nature of space-time Thanks to 23andme for supporting PBS Digital Studios and space-time 23andme is a personal genetic company created to help people understand what their DNA says about them the month of October is Family History Month, which is a great time to explore and learn more about your own family and ancestry a discovery that can lead to new connections with others You could learn more by going to 23andme.com/spacetime Last week we talked about the fundamental computational limits of our universe and Incidentally what it would take to compute a universe simulation on the event horizon of a black hole Let’s see what you had to say RomanR asks Whether computation at an event horizon would experience massive time dilation relative to an outside observer So how do we see the results of the computation? Yeah, that’s an issue Really? You can’t read off the results of an event horizon computation until practically ever I mentioned in the video that you’d read off the result in Hawking radiation Which would take until long after the last star in the universe has died to even give you a small fraction of that read out The slow read out by Hawking radiation is equivalent to the time dilation issue You know what these black hole computers suck. Let’s not build one A few of you pointed out that a black hole computer couldn’t store the information about other black holes and You’re right this is one of the assumptions we made in the calculation Our supermassive black hole computer is only large enough to contain all information in radiation and matter But most of the information in the universe is in black holes or more accurately Most entropy or hidden information is in black holes So our black hole computer can’t contain the information hidden in all black holes. It can’t even contain the information from black holes larger than itself Yuval Nehemia went back to an old video that quotes me saying to Neil deGrasse Tyson To simulate the universe you need a computer the size of the universe. In direct contradiction with everything I’ve said recently about the bekenstein bound As hard as it is to believe that I have ever said anything wrong before I’m afraid Yuval has caught me out. You can build a universe simulator smaller than the universe That’s it. The universe simulator that you’d build inside this universe has limits It couldn’t simulate a universe so perfectly that the simulated universe could also contain an equally good universe simulator There’s no infinite set of nested simulators Like I said our black hole computer is only simulating particles not black holes It’s like the simple logical gate arrays that people build inside Minecraft Emulators are never as efficient as the original hardware Sam Gil tells us this was the most boringest video I’ve ever seen. I have to say I’m kind of flattered Have you been on YouTube? Even PBS Digital Studios has spectacular contenders What about that one where Johansson does nothing but lick a lollipop for over 17 minutes? Or Vanessa Hill’s literal “The Most Boring Video Ever”? That one’s actually quite interesting

What are the Strings in String Theory?
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100 thoughts on “What are the Strings in String Theory?

  • May 11, 2019 at 7:42 pm
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    I believe strings are made up of uncountables Qs snipping der fingers in their Q-continuum 😉

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  • May 12, 2019 at 6:27 am
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    Someday, the answer of what matter is 'made of' (The question which brought me here) might be common knowledge, which would sound crazy.. Except there's uncountable numbers of amazing discoveries which once seemed unanswerable, which is now a very simple thing to us. The very concept of a universe would have been absolutely baffling to people a while back. The answer of WHAT the universe is? In a way, that's kind of not much more insane than the answer THAT it is.

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  • May 12, 2019 at 12:23 pm
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    Flatland…. Edwin A. Abbott … He was the one that send me down the path that now, somehow brought me here for some reason.

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  • May 14, 2019 at 4:42 am
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    I had a thought, why couldn't the curled spacial dimensions be the quantum fields, strings are one dimensional with a "positive or negative" like end. These curled up dimensions are connected by EPR wormholes that plank length strings move thru (we see in the 3d spacetime as local time energy movement) the strings can stretch and join and break (breaking a string into monopole strings instantaneously signals entangled particles of which is which).
    Gravity is just more strings per 6 dimensional tensing the EPR wormholes connecting it to surrounding hypersphere's and once the surface area is covered by 1 degrees strings, more strings must fill surrounding hyperspheres, thus explaining why black holes just gain mass in the way they do. Just a mass of 1d strings.
    Time also would stop at this scale because we perceive time in the larger 3d space as the movement of these 1d strings thru the EPRs connecting the surrounding hypersphere's. If the string isnt moving thru this space and is just on the hypersphere, time cant be observed by us. (Until the string moves spheres) the higgs field is the "brain" of the universe so to say. Which strings can move thru via breaking (photon emotions)

    The 6 d hypersphere's modulations cover the other standard model particles. Because the hypersphere's are 6 sided that translates to the 3d space we live in. Gluons and bosons travel thru EPR wormholes and are perceived by us as such, the others are perceived once enough energy interacts on the 6d spheres.
    Also, the 10 to the 500 parameters would mean that our universe can have that many POSSIBLE combinations, but the probably of the configuration is limited to past progression. That number meaning seems to just be misinterpreted.

    The graphics you have at 11:35 is good and the EPRs are the connecting lines thru the higgs fields hence why time can appear to run at different rates and why black holes just gain area when mass falls in. Photons have a mass of one monopole string.

    I really don't know what to do with this thought process because. I think this style layout of universe would make sense given the lack of supersymmetric particles found and since space only appears quantized, its actually just hyperspheres in 3d space. (Strings can jump spheres given enough energy but the spheres have distances between them we observe this as energy States gaining or decreasing)

    After watching lectures, and this show (probably every episode) I think now we may have all the pices we need to explain the universe, just how those pieces fit and what some variables mean to us (looking thru 3d spacetime and over 6d hypersphere's) are misinterpreted to be other things?

    Thanks for making a kick ass show!

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  • May 16, 2019 at 5:17 pm
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    Why don'nt dey Ask tony stark?? Lol….

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  • May 16, 2019 at 7:50 pm
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    Very informative and very well explained. Awesome video!

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  • May 17, 2019 at 7:47 am
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    no such thing as more ambitoux or change or not or more interesx or not or borix about it, cepitxuxetc, any be inifnix any interestingx

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  • May 18, 2019 at 5:17 pm
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    "For the low price of just one more spacial dimension, we can have M theory".. hahahaha

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  • May 19, 2019 at 2:32 am
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    Am I the only one that sees Matt O'Dowd and thinks "douchebag soyboy"?

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  • May 19, 2019 at 2:13 pm
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    More succinctly, Strings are fluctuating temporal continuous creation.., focusing on potential unified connection positioning possibility. (Which sounds insufficient on it's own, like the BBT hypothesis without this complimentary +/-"vibration" temporal substantiation of the BB format)
    So, a "SECOND" strong candidate for shut up and (quantum mechanically) calculate-onium, Su, is QM-Time-ium QMT field?
    To invoke Narrativium philosophy, 1-0Duration, the cause-effect of Pacman Dimensions, originates in omnidirectional-dimensional temporal Superposition-point Singularity, zero-infinity difference distribution.., = One Electron Theory, i-reflection, tachyons, Entanglement… Maybe it's the mathemagical Aether-Timespace of Diskworld interfacing with our reality.
    Eg "How long is a piece of String" Theory?.. Eternity-now here continuously forever.

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  • May 20, 2019 at 5:05 pm
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    The only string theory I want explained is why my headphone cables always manage to end up in a knot…And does anyone else think the presenter looks like a relative of Peter Dinklage? 😉

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  • May 21, 2019 at 12:51 pm
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    I have been maniacally watching your videos in the last few days. Thank you and keep up the good work!

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  • May 23, 2019 at 6:31 pm
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    Muy esclarecedor, mil gracias por este material.

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  • May 24, 2019 at 1:15 am
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    https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Determining-Unification-Energies-of-Fermion-%E2%80%99-s-in-Christian-lancechristian/ffd838a59b76eb9a6469dd6ca7586389dbdb5d04

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  • May 24, 2019 at 10:00 am
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    quack
    anti-quack

    Reply
  • May 25, 2019 at 1:42 pm
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    What the strings are in string theory? – some imaginary things, described by imaginary equations.

    Reply
  • May 28, 2019 at 5:11 pm
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    Too many intro . Many off topic .

    If you cannot explain it simply, you do not understand it well enough
    -Einstein

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  • May 28, 2019 at 5:25 pm
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    Oops
    https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/threelly-ai-for-youtube/dfohlnjmjiipcppekkbhbabjbnikkibo

    Reply
  • May 30, 2019 at 9:40 pm
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    Nice imagination

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  • May 31, 2019 at 10:44 pm
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    you talk too long

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  • June 2, 2019 at 11:52 pm
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    “All this stuff SOUNDS great” 😐

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  • June 3, 2019 at 8:17 am
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    Those strings have nothing to do with swimwear by the way

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  • June 3, 2019 at 8:17 am
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    Those strings have nothing to do with swimwear by the way

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  • June 3, 2019 at 9:24 pm
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    7:51 . . . . . How can a loop be one dimensional ?

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  • June 4, 2019 at 7:13 am
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    Whenever I see a thumbnail for a string theory video, I take a deep breath and let it out slowly before I click it. Will this be the moment it clicks for me? Or will this just be a repeat of the last time I tried to wrap my head around this concept?

    Reply
  • June 4, 2019 at 2:19 pm
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    Yep got it. That was easy.. haha!! One day I'll get what he's talking about, maybe

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  • June 5, 2019 at 8:38 am
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    Umm, were the neutrinos correctly labelled in the SM at the start of the video?

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  • June 5, 2019 at 10:29 am
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    5:30 you just KNOW when that beat drops, some heavylifting is coming

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  • June 8, 2019 at 3:26 am
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    Great. So the universe is a gigantic guitar

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  • June 8, 2019 at 9:45 pm
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    Wubba lubba dub dub

    Reply
  • June 11, 2019 at 6:57 pm
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    There have been outbreaks of mesons in the last few years becuase of anti vaxxers.

    Reply
  • June 12, 2019 at 10:32 pm
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    Are kids taught standard model of elementary particles in school? I found it hard enough to understand protons neutrons and electrons at school but now do they have to remember all the quarks leptons and bosons? Poor sods.

    Reply
  • June 13, 2019 at 3:57 am
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    The 2d strings are made of 1d potatoes which are made of 0.5d black lesbian midgets.

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  • June 16, 2019 at 1:17 am
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    Spaghetti.

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  • June 16, 2019 at 10:27 pm
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    Nicely explained.

    Reply
  • June 17, 2019 at 4:01 pm
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    Strings made of dark matter change my mind

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  • June 17, 2019 at 4:46 pm
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    "Tiny vibrating anything" lol

    Reply
  • June 18, 2019 at 3:33 am
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    Some of those 10^500 parameters of M-Theory can be eliminated by trying to predict the nuances of QED and GR. The remaining parameters will shed light on how to integrate QFT with GR.

    Reply
  • June 18, 2019 at 3:50 pm
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    Wait so this theory means that there are other dimensions but we're just to big to experience them? That's disappointing.

    Reply
  • June 18, 2019 at 9:59 pm
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    دوستان دانشور و فرهنگ‌ورز، این مطلب در مورد تئوری ریسمان String Theory یکی از بحث برانگیزترین اندیشه‌های اثبات‌نشده در دنیای فیزیک است. تئوری ریسمان با ارائه نمایی جدید از عالم، ما را به فراسوی ظریف‌ترین قوانین حاکم بر هستی سوق می‌دهد. منظور از ریسمان، تجمع و تمرکز انرژی است. تئوری مزبور بر اساس این ایده است که همه چهار نیروی کائنات (گرانش، نیروی الکترومغناطیس و دو نیروی هسته‌ای) می‌توانند به شکل موسیقی دیده شوند. شرح و فهم تئوری ریسمان، به ایده‌های تجریدی و به بخش‌های جدیدی از ریاضیات نیاز دارد. بدون آشنایی با مکانیک کوانتوم، همچنین نسبیت عام، هندسهٔ دیفرانسیل و جبر تانسورها، فهم دقیق تئوری ریسمان میسر نیست. اما این بحث به روابط ریاضی تئوری ریسمان، وارد نمی‌شود. همنشین بهار
    ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
    فایل صوتی
    http://www.hamneshinbahar.net/mp3files/StringTheory.mp3
    همه نوشته‌ها و ویدئوها در آدرس زیر است:
    http://www.hamneshinbahar.net/article_all.php

    ویدئو
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNr_uxwVvRE

    همنشین بهار
    http://www.hamneshinbahar.net

    Reply
  • June 18, 2019 at 10:22 pm
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    The shouldn't accept sponsorship from company dedicated to patenting individual human DNA and marketing such data for it's own purposes. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtLPbEMJx84

    Reply
  • June 19, 2019 at 1:40 am
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    So strings are made of fundemental reality. Next question would be where do they exist? Obvious answer is they exist in fundemental reality. 10 cookies to anyone who may find an issue with that conclusion.

    Reply
  • June 19, 2019 at 3:59 pm
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    Its funny how you seem to be more positive about String "Theory" than about negative mass

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  • June 20, 2019 at 6:46 pm
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    this holographic universe is always creeping me out 🙂 i mean can you even imagine what does that mean ….. we may already be dead but we just haven't experienced it yet … or all the predictions we are trying to make …… we can actually see the future bcs there is no future there is only present , but i think that means that there is hyperlight speed and much higher than light not just the "speed of information"……………

     

    wOw LIKE BOOM !
    😃😃😃😃

    Reply
  • June 21, 2019 at 5:06 am
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    5:05 dimentions. Oh proof reading fails are always so entertaining

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  • June 21, 2019 at 11:43 am
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    My brain hurts.

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  • June 21, 2019 at 11:46 am
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    Multiple vibrating strings will produce a chord.

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  • June 21, 2019 at 7:40 pm
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    Am I starting to think about this on the right track or am I way off?

    Is compactification of dimensions to be thought of as a similar type of warping to the way gravity warps the 4 dimensions we know and love? Just as, if the universe had positive curvature it could be unbounded but finite; should I consider these dimensions as extremely positively curved, so that the whole dimension loops back on it self within something around the plank scale?

    That seems strange and would leave me with a picture of space as made up of a huge number of individual looped dimensions stacked together. Maybe this doesn't mean that each individual unit is uniquely perpendicular to every other individual unit, but if they are finite because of extreme curvature it does suggest that there are individual units stacking up to make space time no?

    It also seems weird to me to think of space having any kind of structure like this because it sounds a bit like a stationary "ether"; something about space it self relative to which an object could move. Of course this flies in the face of relativity, so something about my thinking hear is almost certainly wrong.

    Reply
  • June 22, 2019 at 9:40 am
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    why 9? Really so we going to just accept that 9 is a magic number? Might as well believe in magic

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  • June 25, 2019 at 3:36 am
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    do quantum fields not bend? why would the graviton be like any of the bosons if general relatively considers it a bend in space time itself?

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  • June 25, 2019 at 11:23 pm
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    I understand less about physics than when I started this video

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  • June 26, 2019 at 9:40 pm
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    There's more to existence than the Theory of Everything.

    ^_^

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  • July 2, 2019 at 8:03 am
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    it is important to know what strings are comnprised of. So far, there's an elegant, aesthestically -pleasing set of theories, and the stickler is that no one knows if said string even exist in the first place.
    HOWEVER, it is also true that string theory has increased out understanding of gravity at quantum scales.
    In other words, it may be a USEFUL paradigm, without actually being the right answer to the question of what is the most fundamental thing in the universe, from which all else is derived.

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  • July 2, 2019 at 8:43 am
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    WHY WE try to describe the
    universe ?

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  • July 2, 2019 at 11:03 pm
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    I like my theories with no strings attached thank you

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  • July 5, 2019 at 12:56 pm
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    Hey there! I hope you have a good day!😊

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  • July 5, 2019 at 10:57 pm
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    String Theory is a complete dead end in Physics.

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  • July 6, 2019 at 5:36 am
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    String Theory would also have to account for Dark Matter and Dark Energy if it is to be a Theory of Everything, unless 'everything' means something less.

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  • July 9, 2019 at 5:59 pm
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    I don’t think we can assume, as string theorists do, that strings are fundamental. How would we know?

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  • July 10, 2019 at 10:11 pm
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    He looks like Leonard hofstadter.

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  • July 11, 2019 at 6:58 pm
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    ok so i'm listening to this twice now.  I need it.  that said, i'm enjoying it.  I never listen to or watch anything twice

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  • July 12, 2019 at 5:27 pm
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    0:57 I think there's something wrong with the leptons, the gluon and photon seem to have switched place, too.

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  • July 14, 2019 at 4:31 am
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    Strings don't exist! But hey, UFOs exist! Maybe we should talk about UFO's! That might lead to anti-gravity and interstellar drives!

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  • July 14, 2019 at 5:50 am
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    You look like a bobble head doll.

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  • July 14, 2019 at 7:14 pm
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    Thanks for the video! To me, the weirdest thing about string theory is: if it's true, I can't decide whether that will make my opinion of this universe go up, or down. It will certainly make it a stranger place to be in, even if it does make more sense. tavi.

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  • July 14, 2019 at 8:26 pm
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    it is all nonsense, not worthy of pbs spacetime

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  • July 14, 2019 at 8:36 pm
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    curved space wouldnt be notice by quantum sized particles and have no gravitational effect just like the curved earth doesnt make you unbalanced, to you the ground is flat. Why make up a particle for gravity? Were you not paying attention to relativity which is correct while quantum theory is nonsense and comes from our senses misinterpreting the world??

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  • July 14, 2019 at 8:41 pm
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    people wantonly talk about "oh all you need is extra dimensions" except no one can even explain what 4 spatial dimensions would be like… all those funny cube drawings that people tell you is in 4d are wrong… they even use 3d cubes drawn in funny ways to explain what 4d is… nobody even knows what 4d and higher would be like, all you have is math equations that describe a fantasy world… this universe has 3 spatial dimensions and one time dimension… deal with it math nerds… your theory is garbage

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  • July 17, 2019 at 6:48 pm
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    In the beginning there was a word. And the word was God. Word, Sound, Vibrations. He's everywhere, he's truly almighty

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  • July 18, 2019 at 4:52 am
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    So what are Super-strings made of? What phenomenon makes the string “vibrate”?

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  • July 18, 2019 at 8:52 pm
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    I have no clue what he said

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  • July 20, 2019 at 7:41 am
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    Everyone; what are the strings made of?
    Theoretical physicist; But my calculations tho!!!

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  • July 20, 2019 at 10:40 am
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    "they predict many things with huge accuracy but we gotta tweak em tediously to make em work"

    lmao dude your entire fucking theoretical models are flawed and you cant admit it. how much longer will you cradle the lie?

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  • July 21, 2019 at 12:40 am
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    TIL The bozon is not the quantum unit of stupidity.

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  • July 24, 2019 at 12:47 pm
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    So, what color does ShutUpAndCalculateonium have?

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  • July 24, 2019 at 2:48 pm
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    what are they? bullshit…

    Reply
  • July 25, 2019 at 5:32 am
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    Hii! Phil here with KP pressure washing! Here to serve all your pressure washing and cleaning needs! No job too big or too small! We take pride in EVERY JOB! Professional! Licenced! Insured! Family owned! Respond to this comment if we sound like we can be of service! And remember! "If it's covered in grime, we'll make it shine!"

    Sincerely, Phil & Katie
    Owners
    Bradenton,FL

    Reply
  • July 25, 2019 at 10:55 pm
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    A simulated universe needs not be any more than the idea of a simulated universe in a character (player/entity) in this simulation.
    It's a bit solipsistic that way.

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  • July 26, 2019 at 8:21 am
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    Fun fact: we need a hidron collider the size of a galaxy to see this quantum strings.. Sounds imposible?

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  • July 29, 2019 at 12:14 am
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    #WaveParticleDuality #TheoryOfEverything

    What if strings aren’t strings, but rather particle orbits (like
    ‘’wave packets'')?

    The natural first (Occam’s) assumption to explain how or why a
    particle like a photon (or electron, etc) might behave as an uncertain location
    particle while also like a polarizable axial or helical wave ''packet'', given
    that everything in the universe from electrons to solar systems are in orbit
    with something pulling them into polarizable axial or helical apparent waves
    depending on the orientation of their orbits as they travel thru space in our
    expanding universe, is that they (all particles) might be orbiting something,
    no? 

    And since we know we’re in a sea of undetectable dark matter but
    don’t know where it’s disbursed, it seems this would be a natural and common
    first assumption by people beginning to study physics, no? If it’s the case, it
    would explain the double slit, uncertainty, and wave particle duality in
    general and the amplitude of waves would be the orbit diameter of the particle
    and the wavelength would be its orbit rotation speed relative to travel speed.
    Surely this idea has been considered and proven not possible, right?

    Could someone please point me to the specific
    experiments, calculations, theories, etc that have disproved this possibility (other than the fact that dark matter does not otherwise interact with baryonic
    matter)? Thx

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  • July 29, 2019 at 10:52 pm
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    Surely the efficiency of an emulator is irrelevant for anything inside of it, because the time-ticks of that emulator can be arbitrarily large and from within it, there would be no way to tell

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  • July 30, 2019 at 12:55 pm
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    For those on the fence about string theory, know this: Ed Witten, the guy who came up with M-Theory, is widely regarded by physicists to be one of the smartest men alive and the smartest physicist alive.

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  • July 30, 2019 at 11:01 pm
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    What if what really determine the nature of what we detect to happen at the atomic level was actually not the vibration or wiggling of the individual indivisible elements, but the difference in some kind of orientation between 2 of what we could perceive as strings?
    I know, I know. But I have this intuition. That the fundamental thing would not be an individual frequency for each element but orientational and being actually determined by the difference between 2 of these elements.

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  • July 31, 2019 at 3:35 pm
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    8:30 AHAHAAHAHAHA man that's hilarious

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  • August 1, 2019 at 3:19 am
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    You mentioned that M-Theory's new 11th spatial dimension is a large (not compact) dimension. Can you please elaborate on that ? since we see only 3 large spatial dimensions (compact dimensions are too small so it makes sense if we don't see the 6 of them).

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  • August 1, 2019 at 3:32 am
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    Standard model has 20-30 constants requiring specific values to describe our universe. But string theory requires 500 constants (assuming 10 possible values to choose) to describe our universe. Then why is this considered a simplification. If just 1 or 2 parameters describes our universe then that is indeed a simplification.

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  • August 8, 2019 at 5:57 pm
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    Can I get about two kilos of Shutupandcalculatetonium for my students this fall?

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  • August 10, 2019 at 11:52 am
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    I have a theory about string theory. I think an advanced intelligent form of toxoplasmosis has infiltrated physics and everyone be acting like cats now, like when it infects mice it makes them attracted to cat piss. string theory, box theory, head tickles theory, mouse theory. its all going to come.

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  • August 16, 2019 at 12:33 am
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    There is only 1 string

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  • August 16, 2019 at 12:32 pm
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    can't believe anyone would say that any of your video's are boring?" …no way! i learn something new every time i watch one of your video's .. to me every single video you make is incredibly interesting and mind expanding, and i want to thank you for all of your awesome video's Matt* ….

    Reply
  • August 20, 2019 at 5:47 pm
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    As a musician and amateur music theorist, I’ve actually gained a somewhat better grasp of the concepts presented in this video than I’d expected. That is, infinitesimally north of zero. I’ll take it.

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  • August 23, 2019 at 1:41 pm
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    I have read the Lee Smolin book "The Trouble with Physics" where he posits that when he went back to the math of string theory and noted that it was not finite meaning that the equations had within them at least one variable where any infinite set of values worked. Thus one cannot predict anything from the equation as there are infinite numbers of results one could find. I believe this is the criticism which you mention.

    I also remember reading in either that book or another regarding M theory that many String physicists were stating that we had gone beyond what we can observe and thus are forced to reason out correct values with the implementation of M theory. I take that to mean, and forgive me I am a layman here, that they mean that there are elements of the universe which we cannot observe and therefore we might remain unable to observe even by trying to track the effect given on what we can observe because there are too many variations that could be affecting that observation to ever attain meaning from it.

    It is the combination of thinking about these two questions together that leads me to my inquiry below:

    It seems to me that the problem is that although there are four forces in the Universe (Strong, Weak, Electromagnetic and Gravity) there is only one force that any of us humans can directly experience and that is the Electromagnetic force. Why do I say this. Light that we see is electromagnetic energy but touch is electromagnetic energy as well. Atoms are mostly empty space but the reason our hands are stopped from passing through them is that the electromagnetic repulsion of the electrons keeps atoms from passing between each other. So touch is electromagnetism. Hearing is just the ability to measure vibrations that require touch i.e. the force affecting the fluid in our ears. Taste and smell are based on chemical reactions which again are only the interaction of the electrons being traded in atoms to form molecules.

    So to my mind the problems we are having in understanding if string theory is finite after all or understanding what is quantum gravity really is that we are attempting to analyze the strong, weak and gravitational forces and how they interact and we only have at our disposal the ability to notice when these forces affect the electromagnetic force.

    Is there any thought process currently along the lines of this question or any ability to come to better ways to track and actually observe these other forces.

    What leads me here is the experiment Kip Thornton mentions in his book on Quantum Mechanics for lay people whose title forgive me I forget at the moment where it was shown that the mirror parity or the fact that there is no difference between left and right was shown to be violated. Essentially when particle beams were aimed at Strontium 90 atoms near absolute zero the resulting radiation particles released always went in one direction regardless of the direction sent. Thus the mirror version of this experiment could not be replicated in reality because when you shot the particles at the atoms from the opposite direction they still all went to the right thus the parity in physics was broken.

    Thorne mentions he conjectures that the reason for this is that the particular interaction here is only affected by the strong nuclear force and that in the bounds of this force it meant that left and right direction have distinct meaning. If these forces act in other ways that are counter to what we perceive via electromagnetism then this could very well be why we are stumped in resolving these issues above.

    What are your thoughts please?

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  • August 23, 2019 at 5:49 pm
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    Me Ons and Glue Ons makes Hi Ons! LOL

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  • August 23, 2019 at 11:20 pm
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    I prefer the G-String theory.

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  • August 24, 2019 at 5:00 pm
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    could we use a large QBIT computer to solve the 10^500 string theory shapes??? anyone know? could a 500 qbit quantum computer narrow it down?

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  • August 25, 2019 at 11:38 pm
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    Sounds like a preacher explaining God. We have no proof, just have faith. I have no faith in sting theory.

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  • August 29, 2019 at 4:51 pm
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    Pac-Man dimensions? You have my attention.

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  • August 30, 2019 at 12:28 am
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    I always start understanding all his vids but by the end I'm lost

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  • August 30, 2019 at 4:15 am
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    #StringsInAnAttict
    #StringTheory
    #Wowza

    Reply
  • August 31, 2019 at 1:02 am
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    Since time is completely relative, I think the issue with nested universe simulators is that each layer can run at an arbitrarily slower speed than its parent, at least as far as its inhabitants are concerned. Ours could be running at a billionth of the speed of our parent, which could be running at a billionth the speed of its parent, etc.

    Each layer might not even need to run the entire simulation simultaneously — it could page parts in and out as needed without the inhabitants of that simulation being any the wiser. That is, each civilization building the simulation that runs in its layer would only need to worry about the efficiency of their own simulation. I wouldn't need to design a simulation specifically so it would facilitate its inhabitants' ability to build a simulation that pages parts of its simulation in and out.

    OK now my head hurts.

    Reply

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