The Mariana Trench is the deepest, darkest
part of our ocean. At a maximum depth of 11,000 meters, it’s
an extreme place that’s home to borderline alien-looking creatures. Scientists like to visit the trench to understand
how life could possibly survive and on one trip, a group found something unexpected
inside the muscle tissues of deep sea crustaceans. There were traces of bomb carbon, or carbon-14;
a special radioactive isotope that surged into the atmosphere after decades of nuclear
weapon tests. While it’s a surprise that a human signature
somehow found its way that far down — there are actually traces of bomb carbon everywhere,
even inside you. During the Cold War, we tested a lot of nuclear
weapons. When a bomb goes off, you had nuclear reactions
of either fission or fusion occurring, with a large amount of neutrons being basically
blasted in all directions from the center of that explosion. Those extra neutrons in the atmosphere made
extra carbon-14. Carbon-14 is a naturally produced radioisotope. It’s made in the upper atmosphere from cosmic
ray interactions with gas atoms. But during that period of time when we set
off hundreds of nuclear bombs… the concentration of carbon-14 in the atmosphere almost doubled. So, you see a very high spike. When they stopped doing tests, the concentration in the atmosphere
started to go down. The carbon-14 was still there. It hung out in the atmosphere until it combined
with oxygen to make carbon dioxide and then that carbon dioxide started to get pulled
out of the atmosphere, getting incorporated into the biosphere and into the oceans. So everything that’s alive at that time was
labeled with this extra carbon-14 and that increase is called the bomb pulse. Everyone who’s alive now has some of the bomb
pulse in them. It may sound concerning, but the amount of
bomb carbon you have in you isn’t harmful. There is natural radioactivity everywhere. Everything that’s alive is radioactive as
well as have carbon-14. In a surprise twist from the atomic testing
era, Bruce and his colleagues uncovered a way to use traces of that bomb carbon to clock
the age of human cells and tissues. I was at an American Chemical Society meeting
where there was a special focus session on the use of accelerators in nuclear chemistry. Another speaker in that session was looking
at metals in Alzheimer’s plaques. He said, “We don’t really know how old the
plaques are.” And I thought, hmm, I think I know a way where
we could actually measure that. And that was my start of doing bomb pulse
biology Every tissue turns over at different rates. Different types of cells are being born and
replaced, some turn over very, very quickly. You may be a certain age, but your skeleton
is likely a different one. So how do you measure the amount of bomb carbon
in something as small as a cell to find a birth date? Well, you need a couple things. First, an understanding of how to do radiocarbon
dating, a technique that’s been around since the 1940s. Carbon comes in basically three different
flavors. 99% of carbon is carbon-12, it has six protons
and six neutrons. Carbon-13 has again six protons, but now seven
neutrons. Carbon-14 has six protons and eight neutrons. All that chemistry is the same, but we can
actually trace the different atoms by mass. Because carbon-14 is radioactive with a half-life
of about 5,730 years, the concentration of carbon-14 actually decreases over time. And that decrease in carbon-14 concentration
is what’s used to do radiocarbon dating. By measuring the ratio of carbon-14 in a sample
to the amount of carbon-14 in the atmosphere, they can decipher the age. But figuring out how much there is in tissue
requires skills in advanced chemistry and a really big machine. The measurement is actually fairly easy. The chemistry that goes into doing a sample
prep is really the hardest thing to do. We need about 10 million cells to get enough
DNA to do an analysis. Once you’ve separated the different type of
cell that you want, then you have to harvest the DNA and clean it up
We add some copper oxide to it and evacuate a tube and seal it with a torch. We then combust that material to convert all
that carbon to carbon dioxide again. That carbon dioxide gets reduced to elemental
carbon in ion powder and that’s actually what we measure in the ion source. Once they’ve got that down, they’ll put
the samples into targets for the mass spec accelerator. The targets are little aluminum sample holders
that have a little hole in them about a millimeter in diameter. It then goes into a sample wheel and put in
the ion source. We use a cesium sputter ion source and it
makes negative ion we set up an electric field to extract the negative ions out of that through
the plasma mass that’s right in front of the target. We have this negative ion beam that’s coming
out of the ion source. We then put it through a low energy magnet
to select the mass that we want. It gets injected into the accelerator. The accelerator has a very high positive voltage
at the center, it’s called the terminal. We then have a couple of focusing elements,
a couple more magnets, and then we measure carbon 14 counts in a particle detector at
the end. This precise atom counting technique has uncovered
some incredible things about our bodies. Ever wonder why an Achilles tendon injury
takes so long to heal? It’s because the tissue turnover is practically
nonexistent. This finding is just one of many other discoveries
thanks to bomb pulse forensics. Cardiomyocytes are the muscle cells of the
heart. We saw that there was turnover, relatively
low like 1% turnover, but it did occur. Why that’s important is that you might be
able to clinically stimulate an injured heart to repair itself. This was huge because previously, we didn’t know adult heart cells could replenish. We found that the only place there seem to
be any turnover of neurons was in the hippocampus. Hippocampus is where our short term memories
become long term memories. And in another study using the bomb pulse,
they uncovered that fat cells are forever. People get new fat cells through adolescence,
and then the body seems to maintain that number. So when you swing through weight gain and
weight loss the number of fat cells is staying the same. But, with all this investigative potential, there’s
a catch. The bomb pulse is essentially going away. But there’s another factor that’s actually
pushing the C-14 lower because we’ve been burning fossil fuels and fossil fuels are
very, very old carbon… it’s actually pushing the C-14 concentration down. The atmosphere will return to pre-bomb levels
by roughly 2025. Until that happens, Bruce and his team are
racing against time to uncover as many new medical findings as they can. Because, no one wants to explode another bomb
for the sake of scientific research.

We Found Radioactive Traces from Nuclear Bombs in the Mariana Trench
Tagged on:                                                                                                                                                                                                             

100 thoughts on “We Found Radioactive Traces from Nuclear Bombs in the Mariana Trench

  • September 22, 2019 at 11:47 am
    Permalink

    I know of one orange beast who really does want to explode another a bomb. But it’s not for science. It’s cause he was a real daddy issues. 😬😭👎🏾

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 11:50 am
    Permalink

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Noice!

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 11:51 am
    Permalink

    From Marianas. Regards. Nemo🐠

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 11:52 am
    Permalink

    Did we just fell for a click bait tittle?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 11:54 am
    Permalink

    The ancient city of Atlantis had nukes bitch!

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:00 pm
    Permalink

    The girl technician in the video was very similar to my lost love, man why the love gone keeps coming back in one or another form to scratch old wounds.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:00 pm
    Permalink

    Today's fact: Baked beans are actually not baked, but stewed.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:05 pm
    Permalink

    Da mal Elektroniker sein 😀

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:05 pm
    Permalink

    They even detonated nuclear weapons in the upper atmosphere trying to escape the firmament.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:06 pm
    Permalink

    Heil Hydra

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:13 pm
    Permalink

    If you go to the marianas web then you would found me. 😏 #Themoreyouknow

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:15 pm
    Permalink

    I have no idea where I got lost in the video, but it was somewhere around the prep 😛

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:17 pm
    Permalink

    its funny when they say "Alien looking creature" i mean have you seen an alien bitch ?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:18 pm
    Permalink

    5:39 WTF? Is that Edvard Munch's Scream??

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:19 pm
    Permalink

    "Nobody wants to explode another nuclear bomb for the sake of scientific research."

    Kim Jong Un: *thinking emoji

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:22 pm
    Permalink

    "We" tested nuclear bombs? Who, specifically is "we"?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:23 pm
    Permalink

    5:02: Here comes the modern description of their outdated technology.
    Those gauges were built at least 40 years ago.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:30 pm
    Permalink

    And years from now… if we're lucky.. scientists will discover the affects of Fukushima upon the world, along with Cherobyl, 3-mile island, and other future incidents, because.. they're just going to happen due to our unending disregard for the planet, ourselves and other life we share this blue rock with.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:30 pm
    Permalink

    Can we give an entire video to maintenance guys… Looking at that HUGE room FULL of tech/computers of varying age/complexity all i could think is "wow what if something breaks?…. Who has to find, repair, re-test all the equipment itself… Who sets these giant experiments up? The scientists? Sorry #Seeker As an Automotive Tech for 16 years the first thing my mind goes to is "what if it breaks?" Or "how serviceable is everything? Is it setup in a certain order not only for experiments but easy access maybe? #S.O.S. #SEEKER #Pleasehelp i need answers lol cheers guys! Also Huge Shoutout to #Maren my nerd crush ! A total catch in today's world! Hopefully we get some more awesome content from her soon!

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:31 pm
    Permalink

    Fat cells are forever. Well, so, in a sense, no one is fat or everyone is fat. Cool!

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:31 pm
    Permalink

    Is he claiming that I'm a Mutant due to absorbing this carbon-14? Well the jokes on him, I'm not from this world, human.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:33 pm
    Permalink

    Judge: you still have another 47 years

    69: Lemme tell you who tested all those nuclear bombs in the 60s

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:35 pm
    Permalink

    It’s the Russians that my theory

    It’s a joke

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:35 pm
    Permalink

    Thank you for this! we made “Channel Water” and are dedicated to these issues. Please subscribe and share if you can. Hope to collaborate in the future!
    https://www.youtube.com/c/ChannelWaterLove

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:35 pm
    Permalink

    Stop saying we specify USA and Russia…..if USA do something good thane everybody like usa ….. usa…usa…if they do bad thing like this than 'we' ……WTF😠

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:37 pm
    Permalink

    waiut, but if what's news to you is finding carbon 14 inside those animals, how is it that you use carbon 14 to measure age? like even saying the only thing that changes is the quantity of it, where carbon 14 is everywhere but in this case you found soo much of it you had to think it came from a nuclear bomb; still, how can you be sure counting the carbon 14 is accurate, wouldn't the carbon 14 from the nuclear bomb have contaminated the sample and altered the carbon 14 dating test?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:40 pm
    Permalink

    In the words of Dr. Ian Malcolm, "I'm simply saying that life, uh… finds a way."✅☑️✅

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:42 pm
    Permalink

    Im fixna Sue they ass

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:43 pm
    Permalink

    😂 It kills me how Americans pronounce Aluminium like "Illuminum", as though it's about to start glowing or something 🤣

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:45 pm
    Permalink

    Russians USA and China are to blame for this

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:49 pm
    Permalink

    Thanks murica

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:55 pm
    Permalink

    But of course

    Its safe as it was done by USA,
    If it were done by Iran,
    It would be life threatening and crime against humanity

    But it's actually Okey as it is USA…the country who blames
    Hit1ler for killing the JEWS and
    Burned two Japanese city's alive…

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:55 pm
    Permalink

    Lmao why did i think you guys meant bombs from like millions of years ago

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:56 pm
    Permalink

    If the number of fat cells stays the same. Just shrinking and enlarging. What happens when someone has liposuction?

    Curious if through repeated uses the body more or less runs out of storage sites in the areas mostly cleared of cells.

    Imagine that could have some horrific unwanted side effects like having a muffin top on your chin.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:59 pm
    Permalink

    Delete this bullshit channel already

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:59 pm
    Permalink

    Glad I'm in AP chemistry or else I wouldn't understand so much of this

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:04 pm
    Permalink

    WTF!! STOP THIS MADNESS!! We bring anarchy on the LIFE around the test area and the GLOBE!!

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:08 pm
    Permalink

    Hummmphhh😓 it was a complicated video to understand.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:08 pm
    Permalink

    Don't say we say America.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:11 pm
    Permalink

    Nobody but the people that turned the world into a guinea pig in the first place.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:11 pm
    Permalink

    Let's just say aliens nuclear bombed the place
    It's a possibility

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:11 pm
    Permalink

    italians be like: did you say marinara trench?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:17 pm
    Permalink

    0:00 https://youtu.be/EF6S8ZJFWiE?t=12s
    Iftfy

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:18 pm
    Permalink

    Not the deepest

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:28 pm
    Permalink

    Setting off nukes in a bubble (earth) wonder how it effects the life inside that bubble🤔Oh I'm sure it's fine.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:28 pm
    Permalink

    This video had nothing of Mariana trench you morons!!

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:29 pm
    Permalink

    Isn't it disgusting that powerful people blee these things up and now WE have to suffer with the consequences of their shortsightedness. They have effected EVER ORGANISM IN THE BIOSPHERE!?! HOW ARE THEY NOT BEING SUED BY THE HAGUE!!! Crimes against humanity and all of terra firma!

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:30 pm
    Permalink

    Brain cells are deteriorating, it's a quality problem, the more people the less quality, have they bombed weed in the air? some jump from roofs, others walk, talk, sing n dance at the same time, and others protest bout climate change. "YOU" have changed my friend, your cells are running wild. **^^%%$$….. Ha ha…….#%@$$

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:32 pm
    Permalink

    STOP SAYING WE TESTED ALOT OF NUCLEAR WEAPON! U.S.A TESTED! THIS IS YOUTUBE PLATFORM EVERYONE FROM AROUND THE WORLD CAN WATCH.. SO PLEASE SOMETIME SAYING "WE" IS MISLEADING

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:35 pm
    Permalink

    The whole radio carbon dating process seems really messy and unreliable.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:39 pm
    Permalink

    Can radiation affect chemical dating.
    If all the river beds Gullies and sediments on Mars were billions of old would they still be around.
    Looking at speed of màrtian winds . And at the rate of mars is losing its atmosphere how far back before it becomes thick

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:42 pm
    Permalink

    Kinda makes sense after the US and the UK detonated hundreds of nuclear bombs in the Pacific.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:43 pm
    Permalink

    I live next to the ocean, will go cum in it

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:44 pm
    Permalink

    Are you sure that "WE tested a lot of nuclear weapons"? Isn't it more like "During the Cold War, US tested a lot of nuclear weapons"

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:44 pm
    Permalink

    So the amount of Carbon 14 in the atmosphere rises and falls, depending on current circumstances. So how can we assure accurate radiocarbon dating is accurate if the levels of Carbon 14 fluctuate?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:46 pm
    Permalink

    Carbon 14 been used for dating stuff long before ppl built nukes because it is in nearly everything. Now show us how much cesium and radioactive "hot particles" are in the fish around Fukushima or washing up on west coast of north america.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:46 pm
    Permalink

    "We"?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:48 pm
    Permalink

    5:40 😱😱😱 WTG scientists 😂

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 1:50 pm
    Permalink

    Why didn't you guys post subtitles for the foreign speaking dude?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 2:06 pm
    Permalink

    Why does any of this suppose to surprise us?

    Radioactive Elements are heavier than their other isotopes..

    Why wouldn't they sink.

    Also. C14 is not something I consider a big Deal.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 2:11 pm
    Permalink

    Probably found a few beer cans too.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 2:30 pm
    Permalink

    One day we'll stop measuring age in years, and instead measure age by dna damage or telomere length.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 2:33 pm
    Permalink

    I just woke up so my vision is kinda blurry, and I SWEAR this video titled said “We found radioactive tacos in the Mariana’s trench”

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 2:36 pm
    Permalink

    Fukushima ignored.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 2:37 pm
    Permalink

    Kind of misleading title… Even the ozi had carbon 14 in it and that's how they found out his age

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 2:38 pm
    Permalink

    Nuclear booms dont exist, carbon14 is from huge solar flares aka micro novas.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 2:42 pm
    Permalink

    Yes and the point being what exactly? We can detect minute amounts very easily.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 2:49 pm
    Permalink

    loving the Video but not what i expected lol

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:08 pm
    Permalink

    You forgot to mention that creatures living deep in the Mariana Trench do not have DNA repair mechanisms unlike creatures living on land, and therefore they cannot repair the damage done to their genes by radioactivity… 🙁

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:08 pm
    Permalink

    Same goes for CS 137, it’s great for detecting art forgeries as well

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:09 pm
    Permalink

    you can't burn fat. your skeleton is older than you!! wtf, is this science?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:10 pm
    Permalink

    Hmm maybe we shouldn't have exploded all those bombs huh 💣☢️🤮

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:10 pm
    Permalink

    I hope those bombs are never used for war purposes but it sure would have been awesome to see detonated in person. From a safe distance of course

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:14 pm
    Permalink

    …… The things we've done to our world and ourselves. Smh

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:20 pm
    Permalink

    Actually, scientific advances are THE reason to blow up more bombs, lets just not be so stupid as to detonate them on Earth or the f-ing moon, OK!?!?!

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:25 pm
    Permalink

    So this is why Japanese people are so good at video games

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:32 pm
    Permalink

    5:44– is that comic sans on a piece of scientific equipment?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:34 pm
    Permalink

    Old news.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:42 pm
    Permalink

    What's the point? C14 is naturally occurring and fluctuating through out history.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:46 pm
    Permalink

    Ok who has been detonating nukes in the Trench. Im looking at you French. Who else would.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:49 pm
    Permalink

    Your skeleton is the same age as you.
    Your skeleton and you, are not different ages.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 3:50 pm
    Permalink

    This was a great video. BTW, 'It may sound concerning…' at 2:18 https://youtu.be/Euk1_5A6L2M?t=138 should be 'It may sound disconcerting…'

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 4:07 pm
    Permalink

    Best seeker video ever !!

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 4:11 pm
    Permalink

    Love the video. Learned a lot.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 4:20 pm
    Permalink

    Why do you guys color the neutrons red? It's almost universally accepted that red are protons, blue are electrons, grey are neutrons.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 4:51 pm
    Permalink

    Thanks to infornation about radiation how efect our life.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 4:53 pm
    Permalink

    Interesting video. Many thanks.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:02 pm
    Permalink

    seeing all the bomb test going around earth i wouldnt say that no one wants to detonate one….

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:14 pm
    Permalink

    It's not we, it's USA.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:15 pm
    Permalink

    Upon reading the title I thought of Ancient Aliens lol

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:18 pm
    Permalink

    Talk about keeladi archeological discovery in india

    Keezhadi, also spelt as Keeladi, is a small village near Silaiman on the border between Madurai and Sivagangai districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:25 pm
    Permalink

    This is how mirelurks are made. 🦀

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:31 pm
    Permalink

    north korea is best korea

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:32 pm
    Permalink

    Thanks america for creating nukes! I guess the whole world should sue you.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:35 pm
    Permalink

    Sneaky Title

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:35 pm
    Permalink

    Isn't there a way to channel excess neutrons from operational nuclear reactors into the atmosphere to create more C-14?

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:36 pm
    Permalink

    I like how this video was non-alarmist, unlike other videos out there that makes people panic for no reason. Nuclear bombs still do have negative environmental and health consequences though, you just need to be near enough to them. We can also potentially destroy Earth with just a few of them.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 5:51 pm
    Permalink

    PCB/POP pollution in Marianna trench is much worse, infact the entire trench is filling up with with it and filthier than then the worst polluted river in China.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 6:09 pm
    Permalink

    Well then! Now we know where Godzilla lives now! Well… for now. Serizawa will probably nuke the place again.

    Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *