Every year nearly a half trillion of these
cans are manufactured—that’s about 15,000 per second — so many that we overlook the
can’s superb engineering. Let’s start with why the can is shaped like it is. Why
a cylinder? An engineer might like to make a spherical can: it has the smallest surface
area for a given volume and so it uses the least amount of material. And it also has no corners
and so no weak points because the pressure in the can uniformly stresses the walls. But
a sphere is not practical to manufacture. And, of course, it’ll roll off the table.
Also, when packed as closely as possible only 74% of the total volume is taken up by the
product. The other 26% is void space, which goes unused when transporting the cans or
in a store display. An engineer could solve this problem by making a cuboid-shaped can.
It sits on a table, but it’s uncomfortable to hold and awkward to drink from. And while
easier to manufacture than a sphere, these edges are weak points and require very thick
walls. But the cuboid surpasses the sphere in packing efficiently: it has almost no wasted
space, although at the sacrifice of using more surface area to contain the same volume
as the sphere. So, to create a can engineers use a cylinder, which has elements of both
shapes. From the top, it’s like a sphere, and from the side, it’s like a cuboid .A
cylinder has a maximum packing factor of about 91% — not as good as the cuboid, but better
than the sphere. Most important of all: the cylinder can be rapidly manufactured. The
can begins as this disk —called a “blank”— punched from an aluminum sheet about three-tenths
of a mm thick. The first step starts with a “drawing die,” on which sits the blank
and then a “blank holder” that rests on top. We’ll look at a slice of the die so
we can see what’s happening. A cylindrical punch presses down on the die, forming the
blank into a cup. This process is called “drawing.” This cup is about 88 mm in diameter—larger
than the final can — so it’s re-drawn. That process starts with this wide cup, and
uses another cylindrical punch, and a “redrawing die.” The punch presses the cup through
the redrawing die and transforms it into a cup with a narrower diameter, which is a bit
taller. This redrawn cup is now the final diameter of the can—65 mm—but it’s not
yet tall enough. A punch pushes this redrawn cup through an ironing ring. The cup stays
the same diameter, as it becomes taller and the walls thinner. If we watch this process
again up close, you see the initial thick wall, and then the thinner wall after it’s
ironed. Ironing occurs in three stages, each progressively making the walls thinner and
the can taller. After the cup is ironed, the dome on the bottom is formed. This requires
a convex doming tool and a punch with a matching concave indentation. As the punch presses
the cup downward onto the doming tool: the cup bottom then deforms into a dome. That
dome reduces the amount of metal needed to manufacture the can. The dome bottom
uses less material than if the bottom were flat. A dome is an arch, revolved around its
center. The curvature of the arch distributes some of the vertical load into horizontal
forces, allowing a dome to withstand greater pressure than a flat beam. On the dome you
might notice two large numbers. These debossed numbers are engraved on the doming tool. The
first number signifies the production line in the factory, and the second number signifies
the bodymaker number — the bodymaker is the machine that performs the redrawing, ironing
and doming processes. These numbers help troubleshoot production problems in the factory. In that
factory the manufacturing of a can takes place at a tremendous rate: these last three steps—
re-drawing, ironing and doming—all happen in one continuous stroke and in only a seventh
of a second. The punch moves at a maximum velocity of 11 meters per second and experiences
a maximum acceleration of 45 Gs. This process runs continuously for 6 months or around 100
million cycles before the machine needs servicing. Now, if you look closely at the top of the
can body, you see that the edges are wavy and uneven. These irregularities occur during
the forming. To get a nice even edge, about 6 mm is trimmed off of the top. With an
even top the can can now be sealed. But before that sealing occurs a colorful design is printed
on the outside—the term of art in the industry is “decoration.” The inside also gets
a treatment: a spray-coated epoxy lacquer separates the can’s contents from its aluminum
walls. This prevents the drink from acquiring a metallic taste, and also keeps acids in
the beverage from dissolving the aluminium. The next step forms the can’s neck — the
part of the can body that tapers inward. This “necking” requires eleven-stages. The
forming starts with a straight-walled can. The top is brought slightly inward. And then
this is repeated further up the can wall until the final diameter is reached. The change
in neck size at each stage is so subtle that you can barely tell a difference between one
stage and the next. Each one of these stages works by inserting an inner die into the can
body, then pushing an outer die—called the necking sleeve—around the outside. The necking
sleeve retracts, the inner die retracts, and the can moves to the next stage. The necking
is drawn out over many different stages to prevent wrinkling, or pleating, of the thin aluminum. Since the
1960’s, the diameter of the can end has become smaller by 6 mm — from 60 mm to 54
mm today. This seems a tiny amount, but the aluminum can industry produces over 100 billion
cans a year, so that 6 mm reduction saves at least 90 million kilograms of aluminum
annually. That amount would form a solid cube of aluminum 32 meters on a side—compare
that to a 787 dreamliner with a 60 meter wingspan. Now, after the neck has been formed the top
is flanged; that is, it flares out slightly and allows the end to be secured to the body,
which brings us to the next brilliant design feature: the double seam. On older steel cans
manufactures welded or soldered on the ends. This often contaminated the can’s contents.
In contrast, today’s cans use a hygienic “double seam,” which can also be made
faster. This can is cut in half so you can see the cross-section of the double seam.
To create this seam, a machine uses two basic operations. The first curls the end of the
can cover around the flange of the can body. The second operation presses the folds of
metal together to form an air-tight seal. While the operations themselves are simple,
they require high precision. Parts misaligned by a small fraction of a millimeter cause
the seam to fail. In addition to the clamping of the end and can body, a sealing compound
ensures that no gas escapes through the double seam. The compound is applied as a liquid,
then hardens to a form a gasket. The end, attached immediately after the cans is filled,
traps gases inside the can to create pressures of about 30 psi or 2 times atmospheric pressure.
In soda, carbon dioxide produces the pressure; in non-carbonated drinks, like juices, nitrogen
is added. So why is a beverage can pressurized? Because the internal pressure creates a strong
can despite its thin walls. Squeeze a closed, pressurized can—it barely gives. Then squeeze
an empty can—it flexes easily. The cans walls are thin—only 75 microns thick—and
they are flimsy, but the internal pressure of a sealed can pushes outwards equally, and
so keeps the wall in tension. This tension is key: the thin wall acts like a chain — in
compression it has no strength, but in tension it’s very strong. The internal pressure
strengthens the cans so that they can be safely stacked —a pressurized can easily supports
the weight of an average human adult. It also adds enough strength so that the can doesn’t
need the corrugations like in this unpressurized steel food can. While initially pressurized
to about 2 atmospheres, a can may experience up to 4 atmospheres of internal pressure in
its lifetime due to elevated temperatures; and so the can is designed to withstand up
to 6 atmospheres or 90 psi before the dome or the end will buckle. Why is there a tab
on the end of the can? It seems a silly question—how else would you open it? But originally cans
didn’t have tabs. Very early steel cans were called flat tops, for pretty obvious
reasons. You use a special opener to puncture a hole to drink from, and a hole to vent.
In the 1960’s, the pull-tab was invented so that no opener was needed. The tab worked
like this: you lift up this ring to vent the can, and pull the tab to create the opening.
Easy enough, but now you’ve got this loose tab. The cans ask you to “Please don’t
litter” but sadly, these pull tabs got tossed on the ground, where the sharp edges of the
tabs cut the barefeet of beachgoers—or they harmed wildlife. So, the beverage can industry
responded by inventing the modern stay-on tab. This little tab involved clever engineering.
The tab starts as a second class lever; this is like a wheelbarrow because tip of the tap
is the fulcrum and the rivet the load — the effort is being applied on the end. But here’s
the genius part: the moment the can vents the tab switches to a first class lever which
is like a seesaw: where the load is now at the tip and the fulcrum is the rivet. You
can see clearly how the tab, when working as a wheelbarrow, lifts the rivet. In fact,
part of the reason this clever design works is because the pressure inside the can helps
to force the rivet up, which in turn depresses the outer edge of the top until it vents the
can and then the tab changes to a seesaw lever. Looking from the inside of the can, you can
see how the tab first opens near the rivet. If you tried to simply force the scored metal
section into the can using the tab as a first class lever with the rivet as the fulcrum
throughout you’d be fighting the pressure inside the can: the tab would be enormous,
and expensive. If you’d like to learn more about the entire lifecycle of the aluminum
can, watch this animated video by Rexam that describes can manufacturing and recycling.
A typical aluminum can today contains about 70% recycled material. Also, Discovery’s
How It’s Made has some great footage of the manufacturing machinery. Here are two
different stepwise animations of the entire can forming process. And lastly, these are
two detailed animations of the cup drawing and redrawing processes. The aluminum beverage
can is so ubiquitous that it’s easy to take for granted. But the next time you take a
sip from one, consider the decades of ingenious design required to create this modern engineering
marvel. I’m Bill Hammack, the engineer guy. Thanks to Rexam for providing us with aluminum
cans in various stages of production. And thank you very much to the advanced viewers
who sent detailed and useful responses for this video. We read every single comment.
If you’d like you to help out as an advanced viewer check out www.engineerguy.com/preview.
You can see upcoming projects and behind-the-scene footage. For example, you can see a early
drafts of this beverage can video. And you can sign up there to become an advance viewer.
Thanks again.

The Ingenious Design of the Aluminum Beverage Can

100 thoughts on “The Ingenious Design of the Aluminum Beverage Can

  • September 27, 2019 at 6:08 pm
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    he forgot that the hole in the tab can be used to hold your drinking straw when you turn the tab forward.

    Reply
  • September 27, 2019 at 10:15 pm
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    11:37
    Wot.

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  • September 28, 2019 at 12:45 am
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    well this explains to me why Japanese beverage cans are different, and some still retain the pulling tab, they are clean unlike us westerners garbage tossers, we love to waste so much we got rid of the returnable bottles, it was also Coca-Cola lazyness.

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 2:13 am
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    I remember no tabs and having to need an opener. The cans were steel I think back then and much harder to crush.

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 2:36 am
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    3:02 how?

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  • September 28, 2019 at 2:40 am
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    who else checked the dome numbers on your can?

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  • September 28, 2019 at 2:43 am
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    I thoroughly enjoyed that . Well done . Thank you .

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 4:30 am
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    What if I want a triangle drink?

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  • September 28, 2019 at 1:14 pm
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    I remember cans you had to punch holes in with a can opener. Wow, that dates me…

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 2:45 pm
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    @engineerguy why aren't the food industry switching to the aluminium can with the epoxy lining? it seems like it's cheaper to make and that it could prevent your food from tasting metallic

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 2:58 pm
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    Dammit I was trying to go to bed, not subscribe to something.

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 3:04 pm
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    YouTube I've seen this like 10 times, please stop

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 5:37 pm
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    in Iran we still use a pull-tap😑

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 7:16 pm
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    The cans may be "genius", but there is always those 10 milliliters of beverage left in them because it gets stuck somewhere somehow and you spill it on yourself when you pick it up to recycle…

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 8:00 pm
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    Well done sir!

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 10:59 pm
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    Nice

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 12:05 am
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    Nobody:
    YouTube: I see you're shitting. Wanna see this video?

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 12:51 am
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    Very interesting!

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 2:14 am
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    That was fascinating. Very well told and demonstrated.

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 2:44 am
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    How much did fanta pay you to use thoes cans?

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 2:55 am
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    People have been using cylinders to store things since pottery vassels and containers were created in society. People have also used wooden barrels. The aluminum can is not that original, but a good design.

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 6:44 am
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    This is so cool 🤗

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  • September 29, 2019 at 8:09 am
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    I googled how are cans made I am not at all disappointed

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 9:59 am
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    This is the way engineering should be taught

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 11:12 am
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    Nobody:
    Absolutely nobody:
    Me at home: 11:37

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 12:43 pm
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    Superb video. Very clear explanations. Thank you!

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 1:08 pm
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    Loved it. So, if 70% of the can is recyclable, then the epoxy lacquer, the decoration and the lip sealing compound makes up 30%, seems a lot.

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 2:27 pm
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    Many years ago I worked in a Carnaud Metalbox factory where they made can making machines. If they had to change a line to a different type of can they could do a changeover in 48 hrs.

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 5:06 pm
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    this guy is nice to listen to

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 5:56 pm
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    The real lesson here is how over years you've paid more and gotten less and less soda.

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 6:05 pm
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    This man majored in canology and graduated as a can-ologist.

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 7:05 pm
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    Aluminum is toxic to the human body and brain. And has been proven to be a major contributor to getting Alzheimer’s. So drink up everyone! Lmao!

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 8:11 pm
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    I don't normally have fizzy drinks, but happened to have been given a couple of pepsi max cans by a relative. This video seemed like the perfect time to crack one open, and I found myself examining it along with the video and 'hmm' -ing along.

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 8:18 pm
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    this is so fucking stupid i cant even begin to comprehend why so many people like it. you have this entire wonderful world of engineering and everyone obsessed with this video decided to settle on a soda can as their favorite aspect of the field. what a bunch of vapid cunts you all are.

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 8:31 pm
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    Pure genius! But what if our government took control of this? I'm thinking super expensive, always in short supply, but organic (however that's defined) wineskins for our drinks. Awesome!

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 8:49 pm
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    I bet this guy lives in a giant Aluminium Can

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 8:56 pm
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    Here is a much larger example of a thin-wall tank that needs pressure to be structurally stable: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6AcE7hBhpYU (go to just past the 1 minute point).

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 11:45 pm
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    Excellent

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 1:18 am
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    Its 3am…

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 3:35 am
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    ya missed on evolution of the pre pull-tab… THe kiss push button. I suspect it was stopped because people would cut their finger when they pushed the button through.

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 5:44 am
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    Why is this interesting to me

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 9:22 am
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    I'm sure I CAN watch this video

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 2:39 pm
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    Im not happy bob, not happy. A company works like an enormous clock. #incredibles.

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 3:17 pm
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    I can proudly say – that's how an educative video should look like!

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 4:38 pm
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    I've just subscribed.

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 8:02 pm
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    anyone else here want to drink out of a sphere-shaped soda can?

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 9:38 pm
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    Protip: turn the opener around and the opener can hold your straw! That's wht there's a hole in the opener, to hold straws when rotated!

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 10:24 pm
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    I remember a maths question in 4th year maths about tetra pack. A UK company that came up with a new way to package Milk.
    I added a side window to see how full it was.
    I was marked down.
    Later I saw it on tetra pack designs.
    Go figure.
    Luv and Peace.

    Reply
  • September 30, 2019 at 10:46 pm
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    You destroyed 2 vintage cans!

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 12:09 am
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    wow who's this guy. genius

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 12:42 am
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    Your voice, excitement and knowledge/background of the topic is TOPS. But do you think FANTA is your sponsor on this one?

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 12:57 am
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    One of my brothers worked at Coors in Co and they were having a problem with some part of making cans. He came home and sat with my father, who was a machinist. In a single afternoon they figured out the solution. I wish I could remember more about what it was, but I was too busy doing other things.

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 2:26 am
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    Also the hole in the tab is to hold a straw!

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 2:26 am
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    That first can looks like a granade

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 4:17 am
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    Me to my wife: "What are we doing tonight babe?"
    My wife: "Dunno, what were you thinking?"

    YouTube: "Here's a four year old video on the engineering qualities of a can".

    Both of us: "Fuck yeah!"

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 4:21 am
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    Everything that I didn’t know that I needed to know about soda cans.

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 5:33 am
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    I really just wanna go talk to someone about cans now..

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 6:07 am
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    The majority of people using everyday items would never believe just how much design time is put into the development of these items :).

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 10:12 am
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    Who from October 2019 ?

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 10:26 am
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    Very interesting! Thank you!

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 12:20 pm
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    What almost no one knows is that those cans lose their content after a while. I had a few coke cans forgotten in storage and the contents destroyed a lot of my books. Not a single can had something left in it (except for one that had some weird semi-rigid stuff inside which I suspect to be mold).

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 2:50 pm
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    I'm in love with fast and detailed infos specially numbers , thank you very much

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 3:36 pm
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    Title for this video should be, " I can! "

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 4:58 pm
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    Thank you, Youtube Recommendations. This one was surprisingly good.

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 5:16 pm
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    C zss acá

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 8:49 pm
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    Tanks

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 9:13 pm
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    I didn't know I wanted to know about this topic, but I did

    Reply
  • October 1, 2019 at 9:54 pm
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    One of my first jobs was quality controlling the roller coatings and inks, that applied the designs to the outside of these cans. There is a whole span more innovation and chemistry there, including that the white was always often a very pale lilac colour to give the coreect degree of contrast. I did not follow this specialist area of surface coatings and learn the base technology, just performed the testing as if by rote. We refferred to the cans as DWI {drawn and wall ironed.}. If I reacall correctly the Inks were polyester based and cure at about 180 degrees C at 18 seconds.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 1:01 am
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    Nothing on youtube is more informative and straightforward than this except those 30's videos on how things work

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 1:03 am
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    If it was a sphere the little bit of extra coke couldn’t get stuck in the lip.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 1:50 am
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    Ok then. Now I know. Thanks. I guess.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 2:40 am
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    If Mark Hamill was an engineer.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 3:49 am
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    im mad at cans because a few blew up in my bag

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 5:18 am
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    I enjoyed this video

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 6:01 am
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    First I thought, what a waste of a mouse click, then I watched this video. Amazing ! I've studied these cans a bit, but didn't know every single detail, especially the protective coating inside, the pressurization, and the dome. But the tab opener is the best. I remember the pull tabs and how people littered the ground with them. This can social engineered humans by depriving them of their careless littering of pull tabs. One last thing you left out. The tops and bottoms of these cans are designed to fit each other, allowing for stable stacking.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 6:04 am
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    After 27 years working at Rainier Brewery Seattle, Wa.(1878-1999) and years later I find this interesting video about how cans are made, I saw quite a few in my time believe me….haha. I only knew about the seaming function mainly but this video explained perfectly how the cans are made. BTW I have the very last can to ever come off the filler. True story…The last day (weeks really) was a challenge to keep the production line moving because most of the veteran workers had left and we had greenhorns running most of the packaging equipment…anyway the last day me and another guy came up with a plan, we decided to change the date code for the last 5 minutes of the production run The coder was at the discharge of the filler. But I told you it was a challenge right, well the last night of production came and went (I went home at 11.30pm and came back at 6am) I came back on day shift only to find out production was just finishing. When I left the night before they only had about 20 minutes worth of cans to finish and hours later it was happening as I walked into the building! I watched the last of the empty cans go into the filler and stood at the discharge of the filler behind the coder and snatched the last can. The supervisor of all people heard about the coder being changed to the modified code and HE (5 minutes before the last cans) pushed the button that changed code to: LAST TRUE RAINIER with the date July 29 1999 (I think) but even that wasn't right because we had pre programed date for the night before. I miss that place. Now the whole building I worked in for 27 years is gone, replaced with light rail transportation tracks. No visible sign of that huge building exists even one of the side streets has vanished…it wasn't a dream. Honestly I gave my "LAST TRUE RAINIER" to my neighbor I had it stored away for many many years his turn to tell it's story. I haven't drank a Rainier beer since closing…never will (it's made in California now).

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 6:07 am
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    I remember that with the pull tabs that people would pull the tab off then stick it back into the can before drinking the contents, always seemed like a bad idea to me , but they weren’t littering!

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 1:46 pm
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    There is technology in everything not just handheld devices.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 3:57 pm
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    Not sure how I enjoyed watching this but thank you engineerguy!

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 5:27 pm
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    Wow, that was the best video on aluminum cans that I have ever seen!

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 6:26 pm
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    As a metal detectorist, I can attest to people just chucking the pull tabs onto the ground by the billions. 😩

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 7:31 pm
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    I can’t believe I watched this whole thing

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 8:03 pm
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    No cans were harmed by making this awesome video

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 9:02 pm
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    You forgot the history of the can!
    Krueger Brewing Company in January 1935 for it's Cream ale.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 9:18 pm
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    Really enjoyed this video. Very informative.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 9:21 pm
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    Smaller can , less product , was 375 mm , now 330mm , seriously interesting 🙂

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 9:24 pm
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    Same way ammo cartridge cases are made, and what about those early Coors cans with those pop-dot thingees, thanks.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 9:48 pm
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    Hi there. It is absolutely fascinating to see the thought and technical issues going into the making of an aluminium can but there is one thing missing. Who designed the narrowing dimension at the top of the can to fit the drinker's lips?
    Glenn Cooke

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 9:55 pm
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    I watch the video, find the voice pleasant to listen to but somewhat familiar, later realize it's the author of the R101 audiobook I listened to a year ago. Thanks for keeping track of me Youugle.

    Reply
  • October 2, 2019 at 10:55 pm
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    Who could down vote this?

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 12:18 am
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    You are a great teacher….thank you

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 2:17 am
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    Thank You Very Much for a fun and informative video!!! Keep up the great work and have a wonderful day!

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 2:43 am
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    Why am I watching the boss from the incredibles teach me about cans

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 3:49 am
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    Anyone else watching this instead of studying for an exam?

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 7:35 am
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    I love this channel! Really good but random info. But it’s engineering and it makes you appreciate the small things in life.

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 8:56 am
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    Very informative and engaging. Reminds me of "How It's Made" but with more detail. I thank YouTube for recommending me this channel.

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 12:03 pm
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    Aluminum proven to cause Alzheimer's.

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 12:57 pm
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    Not the best time investment I have made …

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 1:25 pm
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    Now that is a cool video!

    Reply
  • October 3, 2019 at 2:41 pm
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    Thanks a lot

    Reply

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