A quarter of a billion years ago, an epic
story was starting to unfold all over the world. The heroes of this saga were the survivors
of a near apocalypse. They emerged from it as humble creatures,
but in time, they came to dominate the Earth. These were the reptiles, which grew to become
some of the largest forms of life ever to stomp, swim, and soar across the planet. There were, however, some other noteworthy
players in this story — the animals and plants that diversified in the shadows of the reptiles,
many of which would go on to play key roles in our planet’s future. Over millions of years, this whole troupe
of characters adapted to a rapidly changing world. But, even though they grew to immense sizes
and dominated all environments, many of the reptiles couldn’t adapt to the changes that
would bring their reign to an end. This Age of Reptiles was a spectacular prehistoric
epic, and it all took place in a single era: the Mesozoic. The Mesozoic Era began 252 million years ago
in the aftermath of the most destructive mass extinction of all time, The Great Dying. It brought to a close the previous era, the
Paleozoic, and wiped out most marine and land species, leaving a world ripe for the taking,
at least for … anything that survived. In the Early Mesozoic, Earth’s landmasses
had almost finished merging into a single supercontinent called Pangea. And that meant life could traverse the globe,
free of ocean barriers. The stage was set for the first act of the
Mesozoic, the Triassic Period. At first, the planet was populated only by
the survivors of the Paleozoic. On land, there were the amphibian-like temnospondyls
and early relatives of mammals called therapsids. Meanwhile, the seas were home to many groups
of ancient fish but also lots of reptiles that were adapted to life in the water. These first marine reptiles were mostly amphibious,
but they quickly developed fully aquatic traits, including the ichthyosaurs, which came to
resemble fish and later marine mammals, even though they were neither. And in the background, a special group of
reptiles was beginning to take advantage of this newly open world. These were the archosaurs, a clade that had
its origins in the Paleozoic but truly came into its own during the Triassic. Archosaurs include many of the animals that
you think of, when you think of ancient life — like dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and the croc-like
phytosaurs. And these creatures became key players in
the Mesozoic, because they were very well adapted to its environments. The skulls of archosaurs were lighter than
their reptile ancestors. Most archosaurs also had teeth that were set
in deep, protective sockets. Plus they pioneered a unique unidirectional
respiratory system which was a network of air sacs that let them breathe more efficiently in
the low-oxygen atmosphere after the Great Dying. With the help of adaptations like these, archosaurs
spread and diversified. And by the middle of the Triassic, around
243 million years ago, the real rising stars of the archosaurs appeared: the first dinosaurs. This is when the earliest known proto-dinosaur
appears in the fossil record: Nyasasaurus, in what’s now Tanzania. Soon after, we find evidence of the tiny omnivore
Eoraptor and the predator Herrerrasaurus, both in South America. And all of the earliest known dinosaurs were
members of the same group, known today as saurischians. They had the same basic things in common,
like long necks and tails and a generally reptilian body plan. But the thing I wanna point out here is their
… pubis. That’s one of the three bones that makes
up the pelvis, including in you. You have a pubis. And in the case of saurischian dinosaurs,
the pubis bone always pointed down, and forward. I know it’ll be hard for ya, but try to
remember that word, pubis, because I’m gonna come back to it. Now, as dinosaurs started playing larger roles
in their ecosystems, they also became larger and more specialized. And around 230 million years ago, they diverged
into two of their most iconic groups: the long-necked sauropods and the two-legged,
mostly-meat-eating theropods. But while dinosaurs were becoming more diverse
and widespread, another lineage of archosaurs was adapting to another environment: the sky. By the Late Triassic, pterosaurs became the
first vertebrates in the history of the world to take flight, with Eudimorphodon and others
like it appearing in the fossil record throughout Europe some 210 million years ago. Meanwhile, other, non-archosaurian reptiles
were dominating the seas. Ichthyosaurs had been swimming the world’s
oceans since near the start of the Triassic. And by 200 million years ago, another group
of semi-aquatic reptiles had given rise to plesiosaurs, which adopted a totally different
body plan for life in the water. This three-pronged takeover of the land, sea,
and sky allowed the reptiles to rule Pangea. But it was not until the very end of this
period that the last remnants of Paleozoic life would truly be swept away. 201 million years ago, Pangea began to break
apart, as North America drifted away from the rest of the continent. This caused a spike in volcanic activity that
sent greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The resulting rise in global temperatures
triggered an event known as the End-Triassic Mass Extinction. The casualties included most of the therapsids
and other holdovers from the Paleozoic. And this left many niches open for the dinosaurs,
pterosaurs, and other reptiles that would come to define the Mesozoic. Which brings us to the second act of this
story: the Jurassic Period, when the Age of Reptiles reached its peak. Hence the name of the park By this time, dinosaurs had already acquired
a variety of body plans and adaptations. And one of the most important was the spread
of the Ornithischians Now, remember that pelvic bone I was talking
about? The pubis? You remembered! Very good Well that’s where a major change occurred
in ornithischian dinosaurs. Instead of pointing down and forward, in ornithischians,
the pubis was reversed. It pointed backward. This allowed ornithischians to have a larger
gut cavity that could hold expanded digestive organs, and this helped them eat some of the
toughest plants of the Mesozoic. Because of this adaptation, and with the help
of new, chisel-like teeth, ornithischians became the eating machines of the Mesozoic! Ornithischians probably first appeared back
in the Triassic, but this was when they started to spread and diversify. The group became so successful that eventually
it would grow to encompass many of the most prolific kinds of dinosaurs — all the hadrosaurs,
ceratopsians, armored dinosaurs and pachycephalosaurs, to name just a few. So, in the Early Jurassic, reptiles took center
stage, moving into most of the large animal niches. But one group of fuzzy therapsids managed
to survive into the Jurassic, and for a long time its members played only minor roles. These were the very first true mammals, like
Megazostrodon — a tiny, nocturnal insectivore that scurried around the feet of the dinosaurs. While there’s some debate over whether mammals
actually appeared at the end of the Triassic, they certainly diversified in the Jurassic. By the middle of the period, 164 million years
ago, mammals had diversified beyond little shrew-like things to include species that
could swim like beavers and glide like flying squirrels. And alongside these new types of mammals was
a group of theropods that would also take to the air, acquiring the first complex wing
feathers. By 150 million years ago, the first paravian
dinosaurs — or stem birds — were taking to the wing, although these animals, like
Anchiornis, probably weren’t very good fliers. As for the non-avian dinosaurs, the Late Jurassic
was when their really famous forms appeared. Legendary characters like the spiky ornithischian
Stegosaurus, and the carnivorous Allosaurus patrolled the plains of North America. Meanwhile, giant sauropods like Giraffatitan
roamed Africa. For these reptiles, the Late Jurassic was
a golden age, where they were the most obvious forms of life all over the planet. But as the period came to a close, Jurassic
Earth was changing. The breakup of Pangea was still underway. Sea levels began to rise, creating shallow
seas in North America and Europe And as these landmasses moved, more events
unfolded that led to a complex series of extinctions about 145 million years ago, Rather than being a single clear incident, these
losses were the result of a constantly cycling climate of cooling and warming, and a jolt
of volcanic activity again in the Pacific Ocean. These events ushered in the third act of the
Mesozoic: The Cretaceous Period. I know that traditionally the third act is supposed to be the shortest part of any drama but in this case the Cretaceous is actually the longest period of the Mesozoic. And the
Cretaceous saw some of the most extreme changes ever recorded in both flora and fauna. One of the first breakthroughs of the Cretaceous
was the appearance of flowers, which appear in the fossil record about 130 million years
ago. Before these early bloomers, conifers, ferns
and cycads were the dominant plants. Now they had competitors, although it would
be a while before flowering plants became major players in the landscape. Meanwhile, dinosaurs were going through their
own revolution. Feathered theropods, called coelurosaurs,
rarely got larger than dogs during the Jurassic, but they reached new heights in the Cretaceous. By 125 million years ago, big, predatory coleurosaurs
like Utahraptor were roaming North America, while Yutyrannus was hunting in China. In the middle Cretaceous, a new group of sauropods,
the titanosaurs, were outgrowing all of their Jurassic relatives. Some, like Argentinosaurus, are thought to
have grown over 30 metres long and weighed nearly 70 metric tons! In the skies, pterosaurs also got much bigger,
and by the Late Cretaceous, they became the largest animals ever to fly. These were the giant azhdarchids, which were
as tall as giraffes, had wingspans the size of small airplanes, and were more than capable
of feeding on small dinosaurs. Beneath the wings of these animals, the Cretaceous
continents continued to drift apart, and dinosaur groups became more and more isolated, and
also more distinct. For instance, titanosaurs became much more
common on the southern landmasses, while in the north, a group of feathered coelurosaurs
was reaching the rank of apex predator. These were the tyrannosaurids, the largest
of the tyrannosaurs. They first appear in the fossil record in
the middle Jurassic, but by the late Cretaceous, they had developed powerful crunching jaws
and swift legs to deal with a whole new cast of ornithischians on the northern continents. Some of their prey, like the ceratopsians,
grew wild head-gear, while ankylosaurids acquired armour to attract mates and fend off predators. But the duckbilled hadrosaurs were the most
prolific herbivores in the north, thanks to their powerful, beaky mouths and complex teeth
that allowed them to eat just about any kind of plant. By the Late Cretaceous, many of these dinosaurs
were the largest and most bizarre that these groups had ever produced, showing just how
successful the reptiles had become Yet, they were about to see their Age come
to an end. For reasons that experts aren’t quite sure
about, some dinosaur groups, like hadrosaurs and ceratopsians, were becoming less diverse
toward the end of the Cretaceous. The low species density means that some dinosaur
groups were already vulnerable to extinction. And as it happened, doom was on the horizon. Rocks dated to 66 million years ago from a
region of India called the Deccan Traps show signs of massive volcanic eruptions. These were among the largest eruptions in Earth’s
history, lasting for tens of thousands of years, and the volcanic gases likely had powerful
effects on the air and oceans. And in the midst of these eruptions, another
disaster came: A giant asteroid struck the Gulf of Mexico, spewing ash into the atmosphere,
creating an impact winter that starved plants and phytoplankton. These twin disasters threatened all life on
Earth, but the largest animals — the ones that needed the most food — were most affected. The giant titanosaurs, and ceratopsians, and
other herbivores wouldn’t have been able to find enough plants to sustain their bulk. And their decline meant that the large carnivores,
like the tyrannosaurs, were doomed as well. The seas saw similar losses in reptile groups,
including the extinction of the plesiosaurs and mosasaurs. Other marine reptiles, like the ichthyosaurs
and pliosaurs were already long gone by this time. Nearly 200 million years after they pulled
themselves from the ashes of the Great Dying, all of the giant reptiles were wiped out. It’s now known as the K-Pg Extinction, after
the German abbreviation for Cretaceous and Paleogene, the two periods whose boundary
is marked by this event. And it brought about the disappearance of
75% of the world’s species. But, thanks in part to their small size and
their more varied diets, many Mesozoic animals survived into modern times. The three modern mammal groups — the placentals,
marsupials and monotremes — all made it. The flowers that first bloomed in the Cretaceous
are now more numerous than ever. And even some of the mighty archosaurs have
persisted into our day, as crocodilians and .. birds, the last surviving saurischian theropod
dinosaurs. But for the giant reptiles of the Mesozoic,
their dominance turned out to be their downfall. When disaster struck, the niches that demanded
large size and specialization were the first to go. It turned out playing smaller parts in the
story of our planet was a key to survival. And so as the next era dawned, the Cenozoic,
it would be those once-minor characters that would inherit the Earth. Thanks for sticking around for this long story
about the Mesozoic, I appreciate it But please, tell me what you want to learn
about. Because you have a lot of good ideas! So leave me a comment, and don’t forget
to go to youtube.com/eons and subscribe. By the way, have you checked out Physics Girl? She’s been nominated for a Webby, and if
you check out her channel, you’ll understand why. Your brain will thank you!

The Age of Reptiles in Three Acts
Tagged on:                                                                                                                                         

100 thoughts on “The Age of Reptiles in Three Acts

  • May 28, 2019 at 6:20 am
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    Could you cover the beginnings of mammals if you haven't already

    Reply
  • May 29, 2019 at 6:28 am
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    I just…heckin LOVE dinosaurs man!

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  • May 29, 2019 at 6:58 am
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    Heh,heh…pubis

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  • May 29, 2019 at 5:26 pm
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    Why and how was pangea formed?

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  • June 1, 2019 at 7:44 am
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    There’s a theory that herbivorous dinosaurs had to get so big because the leaves they were feeding on were very protein poor. The high carbon dioxide levels meant that photorespiration rates were relatively low, meaning plants had to invest less nitrogen in proteins for processing its toxic byproducts.

    Reply
  • June 2, 2019 at 1:20 pm
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    Thanks for this excellent run down of these time periods. Lots of interesting details here.

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  • June 2, 2019 at 1:23 pm
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    Holyshite. We were rats.

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  • June 7, 2019 at 1:58 pm
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    Are dinosaurs reptiles? Are there not theories they may have been warm blooded? Ancestors of birds?

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  • June 7, 2019 at 6:01 pm
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    but i thought dinosaurs arent reptiles?;;

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  • June 10, 2019 at 1:17 am
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    You think you could do one on the first few million years after each of the big five mass extinctions?

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  • June 10, 2019 at 1:47 am
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    When you need to cover 200 million years of history in 10 minutes. Call this guy.

    Reply
  • June 10, 2019 at 10:24 am
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    Evolution of five senses please

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  • June 10, 2019 at 2:23 pm
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    evolution of t rex

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  • June 10, 2019 at 2:27 pm
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    the largest Dino in the world

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  • June 10, 2019 at 5:13 pm
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    I believe human being's appearance on earth was greatly hindered by periods of extinction and tumultuous climate change. While dinosaurs roamed the earth, this galaxy spawned a golden era of intelligent life. We are latecomers, Wondering why no signals or contact. The feeling is there, that we have come very late in the scheme of things, planning as if we are right where we should be.

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  • June 10, 2019 at 6:40 pm
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    Considering how many deus ex machina situations happened in the KT, yet it was far LESS brutal of a wipeout than the Permian, I think that is yet another feather in the cap of the Mesozoic champs.

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  • June 11, 2019 at 12:38 pm
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    I would like to know about the Evolution and beginnings of Fungi, Mushrooms. Anything related to Fungi
    Thank you

    Reply
  • June 11, 2019 at 7:34 pm
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    I like this channel a lot, and enjoy the content, however, sometimes there's a tendency to try and make the viewer feel stupid (which I hope isn't the intended effect). For example, I don't have to be told to "try" to remember the pubis. I was first taught about that in grade school. Everyone should know what the pubic bone is?!

    Reply
  • June 12, 2019 at 6:31 am
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    Lizards used to terrorize and eat our ancestors in cold blood every day for eons

    Reply
  • June 14, 2019 at 12:49 am
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    🦕🦕🦕🦕🦕🦕🦕🦕🦕🦕🦕🦕🦕

    Reply
  • June 17, 2019 at 12:05 am
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    I have several pubis

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  • June 17, 2019 at 11:46 pm
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    ACT THREE!!! FREEEZE!

    Reply
  • June 18, 2019 at 2:07 am
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    I really like your videos and think they are important. BUT you speak so fast I find it quite difficult to follow and it doesn’t sink in. I’m so busy trying to keep up that I’m not remembering..

    Reply
  • June 18, 2019 at 1:20 pm
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    I'm curious to know possible reasons why no technologically advanced civilisation emerged from one of the dinosaur species considering the relatively short time it took humans to emerge and the intelligence of corvids and parrots.

    Reply
  • June 22, 2019 at 7:07 pm
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    Now I get it pubis-> PuBiS -> PBS

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  • June 23, 2019 at 7:37 pm
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    really love how this gives lots of context over time including plants, continental positions, environmental factors; a more in depth connected way to describe how natural history unfolded.

    Reply
  • June 24, 2019 at 3:46 am
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    How can anyone watch this video and not believe in god.

    Reply
  • June 25, 2019 at 1:52 am
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    8:12 Sorry, but I'll never take fully feathered T-Rexes seriously.

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  • June 25, 2019 at 2:23 pm
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    "I know it's going to be hard for you to remember this word" cheeky prick

    Reply
  • June 26, 2019 at 3:35 pm
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    When did turtles first show up?

    Reply
  • June 28, 2019 at 8:21 am
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    Can u explain each an every period or eras and every thing in detail because u explain so clearly

    Reply
  • June 30, 2019 at 8:30 am
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    10:02 Small mammals after the KGB extinction and 90% of the planet's life has been wiped out: Rats, we're rats, we're the rats, we prey at night, we stalk at night, we're the rats!

    Reply
  • June 30, 2019 at 9:26 pm
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    Err…can anyone explain how newts & bees survived all these supposed extinction events?
    No? Thought not
    Scientists hasn’t a clue either…

    Reply
  • July 1, 2019 at 7:30 am
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    Dude, slow the heck down. Are you an auctioneer part time or what

    Reply
  • July 1, 2019 at 3:31 pm
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    I bring my questions about paleontology to either my grandma or my cat, because THEYRE OLD😹

    Reply
  • July 3, 2019 at 7:34 pm
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    If you use a little bit more skeptical tone these videos would be better… As you are talking about a historical science where certainty is not the rule.

    Reply
  • July 4, 2019 at 5:19 am
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    How did penguins evolve? Especially interested in Pygoscelis.

    Reply
  • July 4, 2019 at 3:12 pm
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    Wonder why spiecies like Troodon also went extinct , a dinosaur adapted for hunting at night, and in the cold..

    Reply
  • July 5, 2019 at 2:33 pm
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    I wish the dinosaurs and ice age beasts will live again.

    Reply
  • July 6, 2019 at 4:58 pm
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    So what he's saying is tyrannosaurs could run and that the while "bones could break if they moved faster than a slow shuffle" is bullcrap?

    I knew it.

    We clocked the t-rex at 35mph

    Reply
  • July 9, 2019 at 9:32 am
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    this is awesome

    Reply
  • July 10, 2019 at 8:37 am
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    Wait i have a pubis? How about no.

    Reply
  • July 12, 2019 at 7:44 pm
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    Will this help me pass the ASVAB? No…but will it help me become an archeologist? Also no but it's interesting so I'll watch it

    Reply
  • July 13, 2019 at 8:43 am
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    This man is such a DAD 😍

    Reply
  • July 15, 2019 at 12:04 am
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    WRONG ALL WRONG!!
    THE WORLD HAD NO DINO. IT ONLY HAS WHAT I IMAGINE.

    Reply
  • July 15, 2019 at 7:20 am
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    Could this guy talk any faster? My answer would be probably but he shouldn't.

    Reply
  • July 15, 2019 at 11:01 am
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    10:09

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  • July 15, 2019 at 4:31 pm
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    the flying reptiles are not dinosaur

    Reply
  • July 16, 2019 at 4:12 am
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    this is so cool

    Reply
  • July 16, 2019 at 5:20 am
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    I love my planet😍

    Reply
  • July 18, 2019 at 4:43 am
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    Now I can learn dinosaurs with Tony Hawk!

    Reply
  • July 19, 2019 at 11:22 am
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    so, therefore, a couple of hundred or million years from now another super mass extinction disaster happen again? based on the movement of the tectonic plates and the reaction of volcanoes and ocean to the never-ending movement of the tectonic plates is it likely to happen again?

    Reply
  • July 20, 2019 at 4:01 pm
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    pubis huh huh 😛

    Reply
  • July 21, 2019 at 4:22 pm
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    No one comments on dinosaurs walking on two legs.

    Reply
  • July 21, 2019 at 9:11 pm
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    I always thought that the dinosaurs weren't reptiles because dinosaurs can regulate the body temperature and reptile don't, so i gess that what we call birds are really reptiles

    Reply
  • July 22, 2019 at 9:30 pm
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    Life finds a way

    Reply
  • July 23, 2019 at 8:48 pm
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    It would be interesting if you could do a show over coral. Specifically, how coral was used to determine the number of days in a year during the Silurian which proved the earth's rotation is slowing. Additionally, it would be interesting to hear theories on the coral gap since it is widely debated whether conditions were not conducive for fossil preservation, or if coral was able to evolve independently two times and have very similar structures.

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 11:22 am
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    He says niches weirdly

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 12:10 pm
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    10:33 doesn’t that mean we’re screwed, then?

    Reply
  • July 30, 2019 at 10:57 pm
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    I thought the ancestor of all Dinosaurs was feathered.

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 8:18 am
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    When you think about, the mammals story mirrors the reptiles after both extinction events. We both started as small and nible, and when the big players disapeard, we diversified and dominated.

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 1:12 pm
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    I only found this channel today, and have already watched half your videos. They are just so well done and incredibly informative. I really appreciate all the effort that you all have put into making this channel fantastic.

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 1:48 am
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    Everybody then do the videos don’t get the real age of diapers

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 1:49 am
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    I meant dinosaur

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 1:49 am
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    The earth is again with 6000 years old

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 1:56 am
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    The dinosaurs weren’t the only thing that lived back then

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  • August 3, 2019 at 1:56 am
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    The animals that we see in our still alive

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 1:56 am
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    Bro live back then to

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  • August 3, 2019 at 8:59 am
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    no one really knows what color dinosaurs were. they could’ve been pink with polka dots

    Reply
  • August 8, 2019 at 9:16 am
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    I would like to know more about dogs and how there existence allowed man to live and flourish. Is it true that without dogs mankind might have become extinct?
    Also, why don't wolves bark like dogs?

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 5:58 pm
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    PBS eons said feathered dinosaur rights

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 5:10 pm
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    Wonder if others think about how would humans survive when hit with another heavy vulcanic activity bout. Dunno why but my brain always goes there.

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 9:24 pm
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    I'm sorry, but given how different and unique they were I don't feel referring to dinosaurs as "reptiles" is accurate.

    Reply
  • August 13, 2019 at 7:00 am
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    …And then flowers appeared on the scene, which the dinosaurs roared at, and trampled all over… 😉 Rikki Tikki.

    Reply
  • August 13, 2019 at 11:42 pm
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    Do age of mammals.

    Reply
  • August 15, 2019 at 7:39 pm
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    Do a video about the oldest fossil ever found

    Reply
  • August 15, 2019 at 10:10 pm
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    Act 1- The sound of your words
    Act 2- The meaning of your words
    Act 3- The weight of your words

    Reply
  • August 18, 2019 at 3:03 am
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    So how do we tie this in with genesis? what were we doing this whole time and don't tell me I was an ape.

    Reply
  • August 19, 2019 at 2:44 am
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    I would vary much like to laern about the oldest animals on earth today things that are older then kamberin . like what modern animals have the oldest none fuse relatives like shade dollars and jellyfish.

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  • August 19, 2019 at 5:28 pm
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    And i thought dinosaurs were birds

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  • August 20, 2019 at 12:06 pm
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    Mammals rule!!!

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  • August 22, 2019 at 4:58 am
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    I wonder if Trex used its front arms to eat eggs when they were small and then stopped when they grew larger,

    Reply
  • August 23, 2019 at 1:39 pm
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    Why did this make me cry?!?!?!

    Reply
  • August 24, 2019 at 4:30 am
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    I want to learn more about Giant salamanders and how they're so big

    Reply
  • August 24, 2019 at 6:06 am
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    8:58 Rocks dated not to 66 million years ago. Dated to 65.5 million years ago!

    Reply
  • August 25, 2019 at 9:43 am
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    1:33 lol that little dude looks kinda like a seal

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  • August 25, 2019 at 11:01 pm
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    And today, when the next asteroid is heading to strike the Earth, we'll alter its course to prevent the next mass extinction, which will lead to mass extinctions as humans over populate and over dominate the Earth and 10 million years in the future, humans will be eating humans on a daily basis. When the bees and plankton go, you're next.

    Reply
  • August 28, 2019 at 10:48 am
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    So if birds are dinosaurs, are amphibians, reptiles, and mammals still types of fish? And if no, what is the difference?

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  • August 29, 2019 at 5:29 pm
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    wait, but dinosaurs arent reptiles….

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  • August 30, 2019 at 8:50 pm
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    Fascinating , very informative thank you 🙏

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  • September 1, 2019 at 4:11 pm
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    Maybe Dino’s were extremely allergic to flowers? 🤣🤣🤣

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  • September 5, 2019 at 3:01 pm
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    200 million years…., we are nothing compared to these creatures, but if they didn't go, we wouldn't be here 😣

    Reply
  • September 15, 2019 at 5:47 am
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    stop promoting the outdated idea that dinosaurs were 'reptiles'. they were warm blooded, sophisticated and no more reptilian than mammals, and in fact hugely more advanced and dominant over their fury rivals, mammals having evolved long before and from more primative ancestors. there isnt even a group of animals in clasification that are called 'reptiles' anyway.

    Reply
  • September 17, 2019 at 11:43 pm
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    Imagine what the dinosaurs must have thought when that asteroid hit.
    There must've been countless generations of creatures living through an actual apocalypse and not knowing any the world to be any different.

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  • September 18, 2019 at 9:47 pm
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    You didn’t mention in the late Cretaceous how it got so cold but it’s short so I don’t blame you

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  • September 19, 2019 at 2:12 am
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    Love this beefy geek <3

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  • September 19, 2019 at 4:16 am
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    Calling dinosaurs reptiles is kind of sloppy, isn't it? Starting with Drs John Ostrum and Robert Bakker back in the 1960s and 1970s the view that dinosaurs were cold-blooded reptiles was dropping by the wayside. Nowadays, most dinosaurs, especially the ornithischains, are considered to be warm-blooded or at least, non-cold blooded. While no one is sure when dinosaurs developed endothermic metabolisms, by the middle of the Jurrasic Period, warm-blooded dinosaurs were the norm.

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  • September 20, 2019 at 5:48 pm
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    I wonder how the crocodilians survived. Were they just very lucky? They are quite large and large animals had a hard time to survive during the extinction.

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  • September 21, 2019 at 9:21 am
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    I actually expected (and would not have minded) a longer video.

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