On October 15th 1997 Thrust SSC became the
first land vehicle to break the sound barrier, breaking the land speed record with an astonishing
top speed of 1,228 km/h, which still stands today. 20 years on and the team that created this
wonder of engineering is now looking to break their own record with the new and improved
Bloodhound SSC, a vehicle looking to achieve an amazing milestone of 1,000 mph, or 1609
km/h for those of us living in the civilised world. Creating a land vehicle capable of achieving
these speeds presents some very unique engineering challenges, and today we are going to explore
a problem that even limits the top speed of the Bugatti Chiron. How to design a wheel capable of withstanding
the extreme forces at these speeds. When designing a high speed car there are
two problems of physics that grow disproportionately the faster you travel. First, the drag force the vehicle experiences
grows with the square of the speed. Returns in top speed for every unit of horsepower
included shrinks the faster you go, but that’s a problem for a future video. Today, we are going to explore the second
problem, the massive inertial forces the tyre experiences at high speed. If you watched my video on Artificial Gravity,
you will know that any spinning mass will experience an increase in weight, proportional
to the square of the angular velocity multiplied by the distance from the rotational center. This phenomenon can be used to create artificial
gravity in space, but put too much mass on the outside of the space ship, or spin it
too fast and it could tear itself apart. The Slow Mo Guys did an absolutely mesmerizing
test of this when they spun a CD up to 23,000 revolutions per minute, before it shattered
under the weight of it’s own inertia. This effect is one of the key limiting factors
currently holding cars like the Bugatti Chiron, the Hennessey Venom and Koenigsegg Agera from
the illustrious milestone of 300 mph, just this month the Agera broke the production
speed record and came the closest to that milestone with a top speed of 277.9 mph (447
km/h). There isn’t a tyre on earth that can withstand
the inertial forces at higher speeds, the rubber would simply peel away from the hub,
but evidently we aren’t far off. However these cars don’t come close to the
speeds of the land speed record held by Thrust SSC. So what kind of wheel did the Thrust SSC use
when it demolished the land speed record all the way back in 1997? Well the Thrust SSC has one primary advantage
when it comes to wheels. It has very little use for traction beyond
braking and turning, as the wheels are not used to transmit rotational motion from the
engine to linear motion, they achieve their propulsion from jet engines and rockets. These wheels simply need to support the 7.5
tonne weight of the vehicle and allow it to roll along the ground, and have enough lateral
traction to allow the driver to steer the car. At higher speeds this even becomes unnecessary,
as the vehicle get’s the majority of its steering force from the force of air hitting
the angled wheels. The Bloodhound derives it power from a EJ200
jet engine, the same engine used by the Eurofighter Typhoon, (90 kN), and an even more powerful
hybrid rocket engine (122 kN). At it’s fastest the wheels of the Bloodhound
will be rotating 10,000 times per minute. Using that equation from earlier, and with
the wheel radius at 46.5 cm, we can calculate that any mass on the outside of the rim will
experience 50,000 times the acceleration due to gravity. A 1 kilogram bag of sugar would weigh the
same as a fully laden articulated truck. With these problems in mind, let’s begin
the design process for our 1000 mph wheels. Step one is material selection, this will
determine a large portion of our design process. As the design will change according to material
properties and manufacturing techniques. As explained before traction is not a huge
concern, so we can forgo the rubber tyre and instead go with a solid metal wheel, which
can better withstand the centrifugal force caused by the spinning wheel. The metal needs to not only be strong enough
to withstand these forces, but it also needs to be light to minimise this inertial force. On top of all this, the material needs to
be capable of absorbing damage, which is why a carbon fibre wheel is not an option, as
at these speeds an unexpected hit from a stone could potentially shatter the entire wheel,
if the material is too brittle. These are a very particular set of requirements,
that forged aerospace grade aluminium fulfills best. Now that the material has been selected we
can begin forging blanks. To forge these wheels the team took these
huge billets of aluminium alloy 7037 and heated them to 390 degrees and compressed it with
a 3,600 tonne forging press. The forging clamp operator here deserves credit
for the insane precision, taking this cylindrical billet and forming it into a compressed disk,
this is our blank, which will be passed to a milling machine to mill the wheel into it’s
final shape. Transforming the cast material, which is material
that was formed by pouring molten aluminum into a cast, into this forged material makes
the material vastly stronger. When the molten aluminium is cooling to become
solid, the crystal structure grows randomly from nucleation sites, like a snowflake from
a single ice crystal. This unpredictable process gives rise to a
random jumble of crystal sizes, grain directions and voids, called dislocations, between individual
crystal grains. When this solidified cast aluminium is compressed
the crystal grains increase in density and dislocations pile up, which increases the
energy required to cause expansive deformation. This process is called work hardening, and
it drastically increases the strength of the material, but also makes it less ductile,
but that’s desirable in this situation, as we do not want the wheel expanding during
use. Now that we have our blank material, we can
begin the prototyping process. We do not want to use this expensive material
and begin prototyping with it. Failed designs would be extremely expensive. The team will first start with some basic
design parameters, like wheel diameter. They will then determine the general thickness
needed for vehicle stability and to withstand the predicted stress. Using these parameters a model will be generated
and tested computationally. We performed our own computational analysis
on stress and deformation from inertial forces on the Bloodhound wheel using simscale here. Using a tool like this, the engineers will
refine the design. Once a suitable design is found, prototyping
with a cheaper material will begin. Many engineering firms today use 3D printing
for this design verification step, but the Bloodhound team used a cheap cast aluminium
wheel. They attached this wheel to a trailer that
simulated the weight of the bloodhound on a single axle, and it helped them discover
that their wheel did not adequately spread the load over the desert surface, meaning
it was breaking through the crust and driving on the hard bedrock underneath, which would
damage the wheel. Back to the drawing board to increase the
contact surface of the wheel. This design and prototyping process will be
repeated until a suitable design is found. Once the final design was decided on the expensive
forged aluminium was passed to a CNC milling machine, which uses computer guidance to cut
the wheel to it’s final shape. However, when a work hardened material is
machined, it disrupts the compressive forces that developed in the skin during the forging
process. The surface of the machined metal is like
a bottle of compressed air, and a small leak may lead to an explosion. It wants to expand, so if a crack forms in
the surface of this material, these expansive forces will increase the chances of the crack
growing, and so another surface treatment, called shot peening, is applied by shooting
thousands of tiny spherical balls at the surface of the machined product to introduce a thin
layer of higher compression, which helps the material resist crack growth. This final product was sent for design verification
again, where it was rotated up to speed in a controlled environments to ensure it would
safety take this astounding vehicle to 1.3 times the speed of sound. Just two months ago the Bloodhound SSC completed
a 200 mph test run at Cornwall airport. The Bloodhound reached this top speed in just
8 seconds, with a 0-60 of just 2 seconds. That half a second faster that the Bugatti
Chiron. This run served to test the Eurofighter Typhoon
engine and to demonstrate the vehicle to the public, after all the goal is not to break
the record, they already have the record with the Thrust SSC. The real goal here is to inspire people to
get excited about engineering, which I can wholeheartedly get behind. Sharing passion and skill is something this
channel was founded on and today I want to share with you a fantastic course on Skillshare
that teaches you one of the most important skills in the world. Storytelling. With this channel I didn’t want to be another
science channel explaining science without any real context. The magic in the world of engineering lies
in the motivations of the engineers and to share their story, I had to learn how to tell
a compelling story. This is a skill that will serve you in so
many walks in life, sharing the story of your company can bring it to new heights and that’s
what Keith Yamashita, who’s course I am recommending today, has done with companies
like Apple, General Electric and eBay. In this course Keith walks through the components
of a great story and the methods for composing and refining a story . The first 500 hundred
people to sign up to Skillshare with this link will get a 2 month free trial to watch
this course or any number of the other 17,000 classes in subjects that range from graphic
design to game development. A Premium Membership begins around $10 a month
for unlimited access to all courses, but in those free 2 months you could easily learn
the skills you need to start a new hobby or business, just like I did with this channel. So ask yourself right now. What skill have you been putting off learning. What project have you been dreaming of completing,
but you aren’t sure if you have the skills to do it. Why not start right now and sign up to Skillshare
using the link below. You have nothing to lose and a valuable life
skill to gain. As usual thanks for watching and thank you
to all my Patreon supporters. If you would like see more from me the links
for my instagram, facebook and twitter profiles are below.

Designing The Fastest Wheels in History
Tagged on:                                                                                 

100 thoughts on “Designing The Fastest Wheels in History

  • November 24, 2017 at 1:35 pm
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    Thanks to my buds at Skillshare for continually supporting this channel, I genuinely enjoy giving these ad reads and potential giving you all the opportunity to learn new skills. 2 month free trial with this link: http://skl.sh/realengineering4 Think I will use the site to learn guitar during my Christmas break, or maybe I'll learn how to pronounce car correctly.

    Reply
  • June 25, 2019 at 12:53 pm
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    People just wanna go fast

    Reply
  • June 25, 2019 at 3:49 pm
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    Bugattis are gay and look ugly why do people like them

    Reply
  • June 26, 2019 at 1:36 pm
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    Real Engineering is just jealous of a Real Country. 🙂

    Reply
  • June 27, 2019 at 4:19 am
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    Ok so if america is AO UNCIVILIZED THEN HOW DID PUT A MAN ON THE MOON WITH AN “INFERIOR” MEASUREMENT SYSTEM WHILE YOU GUYS WERE STILL IN THE VICTORIAN ERA

    Reply
  • June 27, 2019 at 6:00 am
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    5:39 way to lift entirely with your backs guys

    Reply
  • June 27, 2019 at 5:20 pm
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    Lol I love the shot at the US.

    Reply
  • June 28, 2019 at 1:21 am
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    Fuck you and you’re civilized world bullshit that’s why the citizens world lost to farmers and their colonies

    Reply
  • June 28, 2019 at 9:45 am
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    Mers.

    Reply
  • June 28, 2019 at 2:07 pm
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    Yes it terrible here with inches and feet, and I’ve never heard of tree-D printing. We just got 3-D. Tree-D definitely sounds more green and eco friendly

    Reply
  • June 28, 2019 at 5:10 pm
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    0:60 F1 car is in reverse

    Reply
  • June 29, 2019 at 4:11 pm
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    So the civilized world needs a base-ten system of measurement so they can count on their fingers instead of using a little math?

    Reply
  • June 29, 2019 at 4:51 pm
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    For those living in a civilized world. Pfft.

    Reply
  • June 29, 2019 at 8:54 pm
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    What if they put wings on it

    Reply
  • June 30, 2019 at 1:25 am
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    AMERICA is the civilized WORLD and we use MPH dumbshit

    Reply
  • June 30, 2019 at 4:49 am
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    Bro 1:30 the tire is rotating the wrong way

    Reply
  • June 30, 2019 at 10:08 pm
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    The Union Jack made me click this video

    Reply
  • July 1, 2019 at 1:23 am
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    Civilized eh?

    Reply
  • July 1, 2019 at 4:05 am
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    SPEEEEED

    Reply
  • July 1, 2019 at 3:03 pm
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    “Civilized”

    Reply
  • July 1, 2019 at 4:25 pm
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    For those of us that aren't in the greatest country on the planet*

    Reply
  • July 1, 2019 at 5:50 pm
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    Drag cars hit 300+ miles an hour regularly on rubber tires.

    Reply
  • July 1, 2019 at 7:15 pm
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    If it isn't powered at the wheels the speed record doesn't mean much.

    Reply
  • July 2, 2019 at 5:06 am
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    I’m American I can confirm

    Reply
  • July 2, 2019 at 8:12 pm
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    0:35 "1000 mph or 1609 km/h for us living in the civilized world" me being an American appreciated this because the imperial system of measurement is absolute crap

    Reply
  • July 3, 2019 at 5:03 am
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    That was the smoothest ad transition ever

    Reply
  • July 4, 2019 at 7:04 am
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    284mph btw…

    Reply
  • July 4, 2019 at 8:56 am
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    I remember hearing about the landing wheels on the SR-71 were filled with nitrogen, and still had a very short useful life.

    Reply
  • July 6, 2019 at 1:02 am
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    2:10 – "The current NHRA speed record for a top-fuel drag racing car is 332.18 mph, set by Spencer Massey. This record is for racing a distance of 1,000 feet.

    The record for a quarter-mile race in a top-fuel car is 336.15 mph set by Tony Schumacher."

    https://www.reference.com/sports-active-lifestyle/speed-record-top-fuel-dragster-4337fa363e7b1bcc

    Reply
  • July 6, 2019 at 8:54 am
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    The f1 car is being pushed backwards in the wind? Not going to say a thing….

    Reply
  • July 6, 2019 at 3:00 pm
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    His slight diss to North America lol. I’m sad now.

    Reply
  • July 6, 2019 at 11:24 pm
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    After playing lots of KSP i can only speak in Meters Per Second when talking about vehicles.

    Reply
  • July 8, 2019 at 7:48 pm
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    1:00 ,you know that the wheels indicate that the car is going in reverse

    edit: maybe he could have used skillshare to prevent that from happening.

    Reply
  • July 10, 2019 at 2:34 am
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    Not willing to use the inventions of the uncivilized US? Don't use the internet then.

    Reply
  • July 11, 2019 at 2:47 am
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    if it deployed wings it could be a mini jet

    Reply
  • July 13, 2019 at 12:13 am
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    what a polite way to say fuck America.

    Not my fault.

    Reply
  • July 18, 2019 at 7:26 am
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    idk why but the wheels in the animation are making me really uncomfortable. why are they going backwards?

    Reply
  • July 19, 2019 at 6:49 am
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    “Trust SSC”? Magically delicious. LMAO. Say “Koenigsegg” and “TreeDee Printing” again. Plz….

    Reply
  • July 21, 2019 at 10:04 pm
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    Sometimes your ad transitions are so smooth I keep expecting more about the main topic before I realize… "oh, this is the ad segment lol okay cool." Haha

    Reply
  • July 23, 2019 at 1:43 am
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    I don't appreciate your distinction comment that the 'civilized world' uses kilometer for measurement. Kilo and miles are both scientifically based measurements of distance by humans in different locations on the same planet. Didn't Hitler use kilometers? What about Osama bin Ladin? Kim Jong-il? Saddam Hussein? Stalin?…all used the kilo. Please don't take something as pure as science or mathematics and compare human civility to its proper use or function. Thumbs down for this one.

    Reply
  • July 26, 2019 at 6:36 am
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    I live in America but know 1 kilogram is 2.2 pounds and Celsius to Fahrenheit is -32 x1.8

    Reply
  • July 26, 2019 at 10:21 am
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    Don't forget drag racing tires! Specifically with Top Fuel dragsters & Top Fuel Funny Cars tires are rated for 350 miles an hour and actually have gone 339.87 mph (Robert Hight in Funny Car) 😊

    Reply
  • July 26, 2019 at 5:58 pm
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    3:37 what a beauty that truck is- cant place the name

    Reply
  • July 27, 2019 at 3:20 pm
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    Hahaha my friend is relly bad at lying, he said his grandfather drives this, he lives in indonesia

    Reply
  • July 27, 2019 at 6:01 pm
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    Are the wheels of the tesla roadstar with the falcon heavy faster?

    Reply
  • July 27, 2019 at 11:12 pm
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    I can't believe so much thought goes into something I completely took for granted as being as easy as finding something circular, and the right size… and off to the races…
    I had no idea it's such a gigantic pain in the ass.

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 1:32 am
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    Bloodhound is out of funds lol

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 11:52 am
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    presious time of real engineering wasted for shitty thematic

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 9:45 pm
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    Quick replace these evil white men in STEM with victimised white women and POC.

    Reply
  • July 30, 2019 at 10:28 am
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    Did anyone notice that lotus car was going in reverse

    Reply
  • July 30, 2019 at 11:27 am
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    There are few things in life more rewarding than discovery. Loving this channel even though I reside in the uncivilized (but the food is outstanding!)

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 2:28 am
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    I agree the imperial system is dumb but don’t throw shade at the Uncle Tom

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 3:15 pm
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    Yep admit it, americanos. You are too lazy to change your medieval era imperial system.

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 1:33 am
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    0:38 such a casual roast to America

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 10:54 pm
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    1:34 no need to roast united kingdom what are you ok

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 1:51 am
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    0:39 USA: because screw the metric system!

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 3:11 am
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    0:35 so Americans are uncivilized now

    Reply
  • August 4, 2019 at 1:28 am
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    Calls Americans uncivilized.. proceeds to speak in ‘first person’ on American engineering achievements. Typical euro trash.

    Reply
  • August 7, 2019 at 9:56 am
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    Treedee printing

    Reply
  • August 8, 2019 at 3:18 am
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    There are civilized country that uses metric
    And
    There IS a country that planted its flag on the moon more than 50 years ago

    🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣

    Reply
  • August 10, 2019 at 6:59 pm
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    Are you irish

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 5:42 am
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    Roast the Imperial system yet uses our own platform

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 8:26 am
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    To reach even higher speeds: add MOAR boosters

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 3:57 pm
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    0:37 immediately clicks away

    Reply
  • August 14, 2019 at 2:18 pm
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    Me: so what wheels do you…
    Maglev train: No

    Reply
  • August 17, 2019 at 7:33 pm
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    “1609 Kph for those of us that actually live in the civilised world” you earned my dislike

    Reply
  • August 19, 2019 at 4:00 am
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    Good video, kind of anti-climactic though…

    Reply
  • August 19, 2019 at 5:36 pm
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    Civilized

    Reply
  • August 20, 2019 at 10:59 am
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    Why not making these vehicles autonomous to reduce risk of human lifes?

    Reply
  • August 20, 2019 at 1:23 pm
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    Surprising how people got pissed off by joke about imperial system in the beginning od the video

    Reply
  • August 21, 2019 at 8:40 pm
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    Can you please use International Units so that all countries can comfortably understand your video? (km / h instead of mph). Thank you.

    Reply
  • August 23, 2019 at 5:22 am
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    "Civilised world", shots fired.

    Reply
  • August 23, 2019 at 8:44 am
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    I reckon that was a very very expensive mistake friend. Good luck after that. Goodbye.

    Reply
  • August 23, 2019 at 10:00 am
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    Rolls-Royce jet engine manufacturer produces compressor and turbine discs under similar demands and technics but also use exotic materials and design to withstand high temperatures and the " hoop" stresses trying to explode the discs and high rpm and temperatures. The Bloodhound wheels look like jet engine discs prior to machining for blades.

    Reply
  • August 24, 2019 at 1:35 am
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    Where does “car” and “rocket with wheels” begin?

    Reply
  • August 24, 2019 at 6:09 am
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    A world with jet engine cars. Ah, the world will surely be a much better place.

    Reply
  • August 26, 2019 at 1:05 pm
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    Tree-D Printing xD

    Reply
  • August 27, 2019 at 2:07 am
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    Metric condoms are to small for me imperial penis.

    Reply
  • August 31, 2019 at 7:33 pm
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    "for those of us living in the civilized world"

    Well we've sent someone to the moon (multiple times) and hold every land speed record since 1964 so….

    how's that for civilized?

    Reply
  • September 2, 2019 at 9:11 am
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    I love it when you Americans get annoyed coz you have an old system

    Reply
  • September 2, 2019 at 11:36 am
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    I’m just watching this Cus I’m bored as fuck and I have no fucking clue what this guy is saying when it comes to the maths

    Reply
  • September 2, 2019 at 4:06 pm
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    Bugatti just broke 300mph!

    Reply
  • September 5, 2019 at 2:59 am
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    0:36 that middle finger

    Reply
  • September 5, 2019 at 9:08 pm
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    Why Aluminium and not a Titanaloy?

    Reply
  • September 6, 2019 at 12:28 am
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    Rip jessie combs

    Reply
  • September 6, 2019 at 4:34 pm
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    Long live IS! :))))

    Reply
  • September 7, 2019 at 3:08 am
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    fucking idiot 1997 already had rubber tires on an rx7 in utah that hit 322 mph without the tires falling apart.

    Reply
  • September 7, 2019 at 1:45 pm
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    Update: The Chiron has since broken the 300mph barrier. It did this on 2nd August this year and reached 304.77mph (490.48kph).

    Reply
  • September 7, 2019 at 3:29 pm
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    Here after the Chiron broke 300 mph barrier.

    Reply
  • September 8, 2019 at 3:58 am
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    Tiny wheels! Tiny wheels on aerodynamic pylons!

    Reply
  • September 8, 2019 at 7:22 pm
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    Trust SSC

    Reply
  • September 9, 2019 at 7:06 pm
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    There isn't a tyre which can withstand the pressure and would peel away from the hub ,then just go to the mech and later to the club.

    This is what happens when he posts all those crappy formulas when he doesn't need to use them at all🥴

    Hope you got my point

    Reply
  • September 15, 2019 at 8:48 pm
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    Just this month, the chiron actually broke the magic barrier of 300 mph!

    Reply
  • September 16, 2019 at 2:25 am
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    That's one hell of a press working the aluminum blank. It would be cool to see a video on that.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 2:24 am
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    Centrifugal force doesn't exist it's centripetal force. Even in a centrifuge it's centripetal force that is applied.

    Reply
  • September 24, 2019 at 4:52 am
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    "civilized world," eh?

    f you and goodbye.

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 2:03 am
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    0:36 ay bro u throwin shade??

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 3:14 pm
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    Wait…what? THE GOAL WAS NOT TO BREAK THE RECORD? wtf!

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 9:20 am
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    So the UK & US are not "in the civilised world?" (0.40) They invented it…
    Q: Who is designing and building this car? A: The UK.

    Reply

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