Rogue planets are planets that travel through the universe alone. They inhabit the dark and vast space between the stars. Drifting alone through eternal darkness, no light warms their surfaces, and they’re exposed to the freezing cold of outer space. They know no seasons, no days, and no nights,
which could give away the passing of time. And yet, rogue planets might carry alien life to all corners of the galaxy. How would that work? And how does a planet become a rogue anyway? [Music] There are several very different things that get called rogue planets. For example, sub-brown dwarfs
— gas giants that form from collapsing gas clouds and are the boring little brothers of brown dwarfs. They’re a sort of failed star, and we’ll now stop talking about them. A far more interesting sort of rogue,
are terrestrial planets, similar to Earth, that got kicked out of their planetary system. Young star systems are dangerous places, where protoplanets are battling for the available mass, guzzling up as much material as possible. In this fight for dominance, they collide with each other, or get dangerously close to each other’s orbits. If a very massive planet moves its orbit closer to the star, it can kick smaller planets out of the system. But just because a planet has survived the growing pains of formation, doesn’t mean it’s safe. Planetary systems can be disrupted by flybys from stars, or black holes, at any point. Up to half of all planets born could end up as rogues. Scientists don’t agree on the numbers, but it’s likely that, at the very least, there are billions of rogue planets in the Milky Way alone. Most rogues will share the same depressing fate, as their star becomes smaller, day by day, the planet’s surface quickly cools down to minus 270 degrees Celsius. If they have oceans, they’ll freeze and become as hard as bedrock. Their atmospheres will sink down to the surface
and eventually freeze, too. But, weirdly enough, some of these frozen, dark deserts could harbor life. To understand how, let’s imagine a planet similar to Earth, in the same order of magnitude in terms of mass and composition. If we put it into deep space, how could it still support life? As far as we understand the nature of life, there is one indispensable ingredient it needs: liquid water. Water is important because it mixes things, both matter and energy, which lets interesting chemistry happen, like life. So our planet needs enough energy to keep at least a part of our oceans warm enough to sustain liquid water. Annoyingly, about 99.97% of Earth’s energy budget comes from the Sun. So our imaginary rogue earth needs to work with the 0.03 percent of energy it has left, which almost exclusively comes from its hot center. Earth’s inner core is a giant metal ball, about as hot as the surface of the Sun, that’s surrounded by the outer core made up of liquid metals that are very, very slowly solidifying releasing a lot of heat in the process. As long as this process is ongoing, our planet will be geologically active with solid and liquid material moving around and transporting energy to the surface where it can be harnessed as geothermal energy. While the hot core of every planet will cool off eventually, this process takes billions of years. Enough time for life to come into existence and thrive. There’s even one scenario that could allow an Earth-like planet to have oceans that are not frozen over. If the planet had an extremely dense
and high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere, the gas would not freeze and could trap enough of the heat trying to escape the planet to enable oceans that extend all the way to the surface. And there’s another possible way to stay warm: moons. If a rogue planet brings a moon or more along with them, a large enough moon could inject additional energy into the system via tidal forces. These forces stretch and squeeze the planet a little bit every day, like kneading dough, keeping it warm. But the most likely scenario for a rogue bearing life is one with sub-glacial oceans under a kilometer thick layer of mostly water ice. These are not completely absurd,
since we already have a few of them in the Solar System. So how could life sustain itself
at the bottom of a completely dark, cold ocean. On Earth, deep down in our oceans in complete darkness, in volcanically-active areas, there are hydrothermal vents called black smokers. They spew out a cloud of black material and hot water providing a constant flow of minerals from Earth’s mantle. Bacteria feed on the minerals and produce organic materials, which attracts crustaceans, bivalves, snails, fish, octopus, and tube worms up to 2 meters long. Not only are hydrothermal vents home
to an incredibly diverse group of living beings, but also a contender for the place
where life could have begun on Earth billions of years ago. In the dark ocean of a rogue planet,
similar events or volcanic activity, could be the starting point and basis for complex ecosystems we can only imagine right now. One upside an ecosystem in a rogue planet ocean has, is that the environment is extremely stable. The thick ice sheet protects it
from all sorts of extinction events, and, as long as the energy from the core keeps on coming, things stay pretty much the same. The most likely forms of life
are bacteria and other microorganisms. But, given enough time, more complex alien animals could feed
on the smaller beings and thrive. It’s not impossible that intelligent life
could emerge in such an environment. If it did, it would find itself in a pretty weird world. Constricted by an impassable wall of rock-hard ice at the top, and bedrock at the bottom. Without any plants to store star energy, there would be no wood, oil, or coal. Even if there were,
it’s not like you’d discover fire at the bottom of an ocean. Without this energy, metals may never be forged into useful things. Our intelligent alien friends might never break through the ice. They might never realize that there is such a thing as outside, and assumed that their small world is all there is. Millions of generations might live and die in these dark oceans, ignorant of the unbelievably big universe above the ice. Until the core of their planet cools off, and all life vanishes. As the oceans completely freeze, the remnants of cultures and ecosystems will be trapped in an icy grave forever. If you think about it,
it might be better not to be aware of all that. But the concept is disturbing and exciting. The universe might be teeming with life, trapped on planets that are basically impossible to leave. Worlds like this could frequently pass the Solar System,
without us even knowing. Maybe one day, in the far future, humans will set foot on one of these frozen worlds and try to say “hello.” Okay, so we love gloomy future scenarios, but let’s go back to the present
for a different kind of surprise. Many of you want to know how we make our videos, so we made a video about that. Kurzgesagt teamed up with Skillshare, our favorite online learning community for creators, to make a three-part series of classes where you can learn our unique animation style,
with scenes from our videos. But we’re not the only ones
telling you our tips and tricks there. A Skillshare Premium Membership
gives you unlimited access to more than 25,000 classes in all kinds of skills like, writing, design, and animation from experts who know their stuff. The Premium Membership is as low as $10 a month. But as a treat, the first 1,000 people to use the link in the description will get their first two months for free. If you’ve always wanted to see how we animate our videos, and learn to do it yourself, this is your chance.

Aliens under the Ice – Life on Rogue Planets
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100 thoughts on “Aliens under the Ice – Life on Rogue Planets

  • February 8, 2019 at 1:39 pm
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    There's brand new stuff in the Kurzgesagt Merch Shop. Check it out here: shop.kurzgesagt.org

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 9:31 pm
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    Film producers should make a sci-fi film or TV show with rogue planets

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 11:12 pm
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    The text at 5:55 is golden

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  • July 30, 2019 at 6:55 am
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    How did the 1st bacteria come to be?

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  • July 30, 2019 at 7:04 am
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    5:54 Shh…No tears

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  • July 30, 2019 at 9:52 am
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    those aliens under the ice:

    Whats under the Ice?

    -Kurgesalien

    Reply
  • July 30, 2019 at 11:27 am
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    Shhh… No more tears

    Reply
  • July 30, 2019 at 2:55 pm
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    The way they framed the shot at 3:51…

    Was anyone else kind of expecting tentacles to spring out of the water and grab the robot?

    Reply
  • July 30, 2019 at 9:23 pm
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    what the frick

    Reply
  • July 30, 2019 at 9:33 pm
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    You all should do a little bit of research into octopuses 😀 and jelly fish and even some deep sea extreme organisms, their eggs can survive deep space radiation as well as the cold quite easily. As if it does this on a regular basis. Not to mention the fact that the nature of their physical slimy bodies are quite good at giving off genetic material in all kinds of ways 🙂

    What would really blow your mind is where they actually originate from 🙂

    TGC 🙂
    Blessings in abundance:)

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 11:41 am
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    Has anyone thought if the world suddenly ended because some really quick planet just killed us all

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 11:51 am
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    TRAPPED UNDER ICE

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 12:57 pm
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    2:03 hard as bedrock?

    Ice = bedrock

    Made a ice house.

    Creeper: Aw man…

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 2:33 pm
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    I love 60fps

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 3:32 pm
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    In the DnD character creator of life of course.

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 6:47 pm
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    Kinda similiar to the lake covered by ice in antartica that russia tried to drill into

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 7:45 pm
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    I am not surprised this showed up in my recommended so shorty after Another Life aired on Netflix.

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 12:23 am
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    5:54 "shhh… no tears"

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 12:58 am
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    Welcome to subnautica subzero

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 10:10 am
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    Illegal aliens under ICE

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 11:05 am
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    s h h n o t e a r s

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 11:42 am
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    2:44
    SCP-999 Subject class: safe

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 5:17 pm
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    So on these frozen worlds their problem is Global…Freeing???

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 5:48 pm
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    Subnautica below zero confirmed

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 7:40 pm
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    This is the cooler sibling of the Infographics show

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 7:48 pm
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    kinda sad there wasn't a thing reference in this video

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 3:51 am
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    Europa Report anybody?

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 6:46 am
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    hah, Ice does have Aliens under them, illegal aliens .

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 3:57 pm
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    holy shit I'm so fucking high rn

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 1:22 am
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    that shh no tears broke me a little lol

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 4:48 am
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    A small world doomed to freeze over, and it's impossible to reach beyond it thanks to an impassible barrier… Sounds familiar.

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 2:55 pm
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    The aliens WOULD break free from the ice and discover space

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 3:33 pm
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    Subnautica sub zero noises

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 7:33 pm
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    How do we know if we aren't trapped under the ice, of some sort?
    I mean, maybe what we consider the observable universe is also a small subset of reality, because due to some peculiar condition of ours we are physically unable to perceive the rest. I mean, the trapped-under-ice beings wouldn't even be cognitively prepared to IMAGINE, or reason about the world beyond their world. They wouldn't know they're trapped/limited, either.

    Reply
  • August 4, 2019 at 3:49 am
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    our own deep sea is not fully unexplored

    it makes so much sense!

    Reply
  • August 4, 2019 at 6:29 pm
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    Can we just talk about how beautiful the animation is ?

    Reply
  • August 4, 2019 at 7:12 pm
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    What if we make animals, that survive the mars.
    Then we are not alone

    Reply
  • August 5, 2019 at 5:11 pm
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    Yay, bedrock exists!

    Reply
  • August 6, 2019 at 1:23 am
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    How much thrust would we need to move the earth off its axis or orbit

    Reply
  • August 6, 2019 at 2:13 am
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    Tnks

    Reply
  • August 6, 2019 at 7:12 pm
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    veri naice video i love ur videos they are understandable and very intelligent and real veri naice job

    Reply
  • August 7, 2019 at 7:24 am
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    Yes let me take your ideas and sell them
    my name is India 🇮🇳 I will take your card and Social security numbers now

    Rip

    Reply
  • August 7, 2019 at 9:37 am
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    2:42

    Reply
  • August 7, 2019 at 2:39 pm
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    5:55 shhh, no tears

    Reply
  • August 7, 2019 at 5:56 pm
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    Subnautica confirmed lol

    Reply
  • August 8, 2019 at 8:41 am
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    wut about use the geothermal vents as a source of thermal energy in the place of fire for civilization development.

    Reply
  • August 9, 2019 at 7:29 am
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    This is my favourite Kurzgesagt video!

    Reply
  • August 10, 2019 at 9:46 am
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    Kurzgesagt: Ice becomes as hard as bedrock
    Minecraft players: We want to know the method

    Reply
  • August 10, 2019 at 7:50 pm
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    5:54 Who noticed the "Shhh… no tears"?

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 8:01 am
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    Someone: what do you know
    Kurzgesagt: yes

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 12:52 pm
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    4:57 ey wait a minute

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 1:13 pm
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    No need for me to learn about your video production at Skillshare. Zeino already taught me how to do it. 😝

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 2:18 pm
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    This idea reminds me of the Ceph ruins in Crysis. We better keep them under the ice! O_o

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 2:56 pm
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    На русском языке, перевод видео не завершён
    In Russian, the translation of the video is not complete

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 3:05 pm
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    Barotrauma

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 3:13 pm
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    This aroused my H.P Lovecraft sense ☺️

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 3:57 pm
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    4:56
    You thought I wouldnt see that adventure time reference didnt you-

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 7:42 pm
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    who else wants a game of this guy

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 7:46 pm
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    I came here to learn not feel. ;_;

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 8:27 pm
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    4:57 did anyone see the adventure time reference… no just me

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 10:02 pm
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    1 like = one hug for a brown planet

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 10:41 pm
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    The remains won't be trapped in the ice forever, since eventually all matter will decay.

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 11:33 pm
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    make a video about the consequences of natural disasters you,re great!!!!

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 12:19 am
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    I loove space

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 12:35 am
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    shh, no tears

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 1:40 am
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    4:54
    ADVENTURE TIME SNAIL!!!!!

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 2:40 am
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    4:57 THAT SNAIL FROM ADVENTURE TIME KEEPS ON APPEARING EVERYWHERE!?!?

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 4:37 am
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    I SAW YOU LICH SNAIL

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 5:23 am
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    I called those planets prison planets

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 5:48 am
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    Nice adventure time reference

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 6:30 am
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    Wait i thought of this during the video. If the universe is infinite then there is an infinite amount of rogue planets but not all planets are rogue planets. So what does that mean for our concept of infinity? And if any number is divided by infinity it is so close to zero that it is negligible because infinity is too large it is infinite. So the number of rogue planets divided by all the planets is so close to zero that it might as well be negligible.

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 6:40 am
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    What’s the point of life coming into existence at all? It doesn’t add up with anything. It doesn’t sustain the planet, perhaps bees do. But it makes no sense.

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 7:58 am
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    4:57
    Hey!!
    Adventure times snail! 🐌🐌🐌🐌🐌🐌🐌🐌🐌

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 11:30 am
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    AMAZING

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 11:35 am
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    Subnautica below zero anyone?

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 2:04 pm
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    You watch adventure time

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 4:16 pm
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    Does that mean I can create life by boiling water slowly for a very long time?

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 7:06 pm
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    So what you’re telling me is that there could be an Atlantis on other planets 😱

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 7:22 pm
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    Ice ice baby, too cold, too cold.

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 7:26 pm
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    Hold up, pritty shure those sea volcanos can be hot enough to make metal tools and weapons

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 9:36 pm
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    Where my star trek ENT fans at 🙌 u know what I'm on about

    Reply
  • August 13, 2019 at 8:19 am
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    We are might as well trap inside a black hole

    Reply
  • August 13, 2019 at 10:13 am
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    한글자막 이상해;

    Reply
  • August 13, 2019 at 2:21 pm
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    How human, we already belittle species we don't even know exist.

    Reply
  • August 13, 2019 at 3:06 pm
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    Anybody else see the Lich Snail?

    Reply
  • August 13, 2019 at 3:43 pm
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    What is the song's name?

    Reply
  • August 13, 2019 at 8:27 pm
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    Adventure Time reference at 4:57, that purple waving snail is in every episode of adventure time ever as a sort of a “Where’s Waldo” spot the snail Easter egg.

    Reply
  • August 13, 2019 at 9:30 pm
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    4:34 Is that you Marit Lage?

    Reply
  • August 13, 2019 at 10:07 pm
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    Salsa Colombia

    Salsa colmobina

    Reply
  • August 14, 2019 at 12:35 am
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    I doubt an other worldly planet would need fire to start a civilization they are things unknown to us

    Reply
  • August 14, 2019 at 1:24 am
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    Imagine being one of those planets trying to cut through rock hard ice ( there would be lots of stars)

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  • August 14, 2019 at 1:28 am
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    The animals under that ice would probably look like the animals in Mariannas trench

    Reply
  • August 14, 2019 at 2:30 am
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    We think that's depressing and yet we don't think living on the vulnerable surface slowly heat polluting ourselves to death in the near defenseless atmosphere of a world isn't. What's worse, knowing the universe is there and being unable to reach it or not knowing it's there? Honestly I'm jealous of the ice world aliens.

    Reply
  • August 14, 2019 at 3:05 am
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    Has anyone seen "The Europa Report"? Because this video reminds me of that movie

    Reply
  • August 14, 2019 at 4:33 am
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    Krab people krab people

    Reply
  • August 14, 2019 at 5:03 am
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    this totally needs to be done in minecraft

    Reply
  • August 14, 2019 at 6:05 am
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    4:59 adventure time.
    If you don't understand, read the comment

    Reply
  • August 14, 2019 at 7:38 am
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    Idk, I think microbes alone would be a gigantic leap in the right direction. Single-celled and very basic, multi-cellular organisms have proven their resilience in some of the harshest conditions imaginable. To believe that we are alone in the universe is idiotic and basing a planet who’s primary blueprint is carbon is simply putting blinders on a horse because as far as I’m concerned, elements we find sacred are scarce on others. I can’t escape the idea that the universe is simply teeming with life, it’s the most optimistic view that I hold given my line of work that relies so heavily on death.

    Reply
  • August 14, 2019 at 7:46 am
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    2:03 WHAT

    Reply

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